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CELLS!. 10/18/2010. What are cells?. Robert Hooke in 1665 first called the tiny chambers he saw in a microscope cells . All living things are made out of cells! Cells contain living matter. CELLS MAKE UP EVERY LIVING THING! Plants are made of CELLS! Animals are made of CELLS!

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cells

CELLS!

10/18/2010

what are cells
What are cells?
  • Robert Hooke in 1665 first called the tiny chambers he saw in a microscope cells. All living things are made out of cells! Cells contain living matter.
  • CELLS MAKE UP EVERY LIVING THING!
    • Plants are made of CELLS!
    • Animals are made of CELLS!
    • Bacteria are CELLS!
  • Can we see them?
    • Most cells are very small so we can’t see them without a microscope
    • BUT a chicken egg is just one large cell.. 
the cell theory
The Cell Theory
  • What do cells have to do with life?
    • All living things are composed of cells

(you, me, plants, bugs, fish, Spiderman, Colonel Sanders, Jimmy Neutron, Bacteria, Yeast, Jackie Chan)

    • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things

(what keeps us upright and helps us live, basically small workers responsible for how we function!)

    • New cells are produced from existing cells

(they can’t just appear out of thin air…cells make new cells by dividing!)

slide4

Classifications of Life:

All life is classified into three Domains…

Archaea

Bacteria

Eukarya

Each domain is divided into Kingdoms. There are six different kingdoms…

Eubacteria

Archae-bacteria

Protista

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

It’s important to note that both Eubacteria and Archaebacteria are Prokaryotes. All Prokaryotes are single-celled and include all types of bacteria. Eubacteria and Archaebacteria are much more genetically varied than Protists, Plants, Fungus, and Animals, which is why bacteria are divided into two kingdoms.

Let’s look at some examples of organisms in each kingdom…

Bacteria we see everyday. Like streptococci (causes strep throat).

Bacteria found in extreme environments such as hot boiling water and thermal vents with no oxygen or highly acid environments.

Unicellular Eukaryotes: Algae and slime molds. Odds and ends animals (complex but are unicellular)

Flowering plants, mosses, and ferns

Mushrooms, mold, mildew. CANNOT make their own food

Consist of complex cells, are all heterotrophs. Things like tigers, bears, penguins, humans, etc.

why the classifications
Why the classifications?
  • You’re the scientist: Let’s figure out the difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes!
  • With a partner, complete the questions on your notes by examining the images. If you finish early, compare your results with another group.
prokaryotes and eukaryotes
PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES
  • Both Have:
    • Cytoplasm
    • Ribosomes
    • Plasma Membrane
    • With Plants: Cell Wall
    • With (some) Animals: Flagella
  • Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus!
  • Eukaryotes are more complex
  • Eukaryotes are larger
why are cells named that way
Why are cells named that way?
  • From Greek words…
    • EU means TRUE.
    • PRO means BEFORE.
    • KARYON means NUCLEUS.
      • Eukaryote = TRUE NUCLEUS;
      • Prokaryote = BEFORE NUCLEUS.
  • All cells have DNA, in eukaryotes it is stored in the nucleus.
  • Prokaryotes don’t have a nucleus, and it floats around in the cytoplasm in things called nucleoids.
  • Only eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles.
how is life organized for multi cellular organisms
How is life organized for MULTI-CELLULAR Organisms?
  • Cellsmake up tissues which make up organs which make up organ systems which make up organisms
  • We can also take it back to the atomic level..