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Taking Notes. Introduction Taking notes Summarizing information Paraphrasing information Using direct quotations Talk About It Your Turn Tech Tool in this presentation Webnote. Introduction. Derrel has a narrow research topic. Topic: communication between dolphins and human beings.

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slide1

Taking Notes

  • Introduction
  • Taking notes
  • Summarizing information
  • Paraphrasing information
  • Using direct quotations
  • Talk About It
  • Your Turn
  • Tech Tool in this presentation
  • Webnote
slide2

Introduction

  • Derrel has a narrow research topic . . .

Topic: communication between dolphins and human beings

and an effective research question.

How do dolphins communicate with human beings?

slide3

Introduction

He has located valid sources of information.

What’s next?

Dolphin Tribe: Remembering the Human-Dolphin Connection, by Ashleea Nielsen

He’s even created a source list.

1)Nielsen, Ashleea. Dolphin Tribe: Remembering the Human-Dolphin Connection. 2nd ed. Maui: Dancing Dolphin Press, 1994. Print.

slide4

Introduction

  • Derrel is ready to take notes from his sources. This is a very important step in the research process. He will:
  • search for information that answers his research question
  • write down information he doesn’t want to forget
  • take notes in his own words, whenever possible
  • organize his work by labeling each note with a source number
slide5

Taking notes

By this point in the research process, you have already found several good sources of information. Now it’s time to read each source and look for information that answers your research question.

Because you can’t remember everything you read, you will take notes on any information you think might be useful.

slide6

Taking notes

  • What should you write down? You are looking for

facts

examples

statistics

quotations

that answer your research question.

  • Fact:a statement that can be proven to be true

Bottlenose dolphins live in groups called pods.

  • Statistic:information in number form

At least 2,700 bottlenose dolphins are in captivity.

slide7

Taking notes

  • Example:a specific illustration of a general idea

When hunting, dolphins cooperate by herding the fish or taking turns charging through them.

  • Quotation:someone else’s exact words

“It is the dolphin’s birthright to swim in a straight line in the ocean as far as its heart desires.” –Ric O’Barry

slide8

Taking notes

  • As you consider the information you find in your sources, keep these questions in mind:
  • Does this information help answer my research question?
  • Would this information help my reader understand my topic?
  • If the answer to either of these questions is yes, you should take notes on that information.
slide9

Taking notes

  • There are three basic ways to take notes. Use all three as you get information from your sources.
  • Summarizing means stating just the author’s most important ideas in your own words.
  • Paraphrasing means stating all of the author’s ideas (both main ideas and details) in your own words.
  • Using a direct quotation means using an author’s exact words within quotation marks.
slide10

Summarizing information

Summarizingis a very important research skill. Follow these rules to summarize information from a source:

  • Use only the author’s most important ideas.
  • Put the ideas in your own words.
  • Do not use the author’s words.
  • Make your summary only about one-third as long as the original.
slide11

Summarizing information

  • Below is a section from an article on dolphin behavior.

On the next slide, you will see this information summarized.

slide12

Summarizing information

  • Is this a good summary of the passage?
  • Why or why not?
  • Dolphins are mammals, like you are. They breathe air and they talk to each other. Sometimes they sound like they are having a conversation with each other at a party, answering each other or all talking at once. They use nonverbal communication, too, like jaw claps, bubble blowing, and fin caressing.
  • Dolphins are mammals, like you are. They breathe air and they talk to each other. Sometimes they sound like they are having a conversation with each other at a party, answering each other or all talking at once. They use nonverbal communication, too, like jaw claps, bubble blowing, and fin caressing.
  • Dolphins are mammals, like you are. They breathe air and they talk to each other. Sometimes they sound like they are having a conversation with each other at a party, answering each other or all talking at once. They use nonverbal communication, too, like jaw claps, bubble blowing, and fin caressing.
  • Dolphins are mammals, like you are. They breathe air and they talk to each other. Sometimes they sound like they are having a conversation with each other at a party, answering each other or all talking at once. They use nonverbal communication, too, like jaw claps, bubble blowing, and fin caressing.

author’s words

unimportant details

author’s words

slide13

Summarizing information

What about this summary? In what ways is it different from the first summary?

Dolphins are members of the mammal family, just like humans. Dolphins breathe air, communicate verbally and nonverbally, and live in groups, just like people.

Dolphins are members of the mammal family, just like humans.Dolphins breathe air, communicate verbally and nonverbally, and live in groups, just like people.

Dolphins are members of the mammal family, just like humans. Dolphins breathe air, communicate verbally and nonverbally, and live in groups, just like people.

student’s own words

author’s most important ideas

only about 1/3 as long as original

slide14

Paraphrasing information

  • Paraphrasing is another skill you will use often in research. Here are the rules for paraphrasing a source:
  • Include both main ideas and details from the original source.
  • Put the ideas and details in your ownwords—give your own explanation of what the author says.
  • If you use any of the author’s words, put them in quotation marks.

“ ”

  • Make your paraphrase about the same length as the original.
slide15

Paraphrasing information

  • Here is more information on dolphins. You’ll see this passage paraphrased on the next slide.

Thinking Dolphin

Scientists think dolphins “talk” about everything from basic facts like their age to their emotional state. “I speculate that they say things like, ‘there are some good fish over here,’ or ‘watch out for that shark because he’s hunting,’” says Denise Herzing, who studies dolphins in the Bahamas.

When the going gets tough, for instance, some dolphins call for backup. After being bullied by a duo of bottlenose dolphins, one spotted dolphin returned to the scene the next day with a few pals to chase and harass one of the bully bottlenose dolphins. “It’s as if the spotted dolphin communicated to his buddies that he needed their help, then led them in search of this guy, says Herzing, who watched the scuffle.

slide16

Paraphrasing information

  • Is this a good paraphrase of the passage? Why?

Scientists aren’t sure what dolphins talk about. They think that sometimes they may be calling for backup when they chatter with other dolphins.

Scientists aren’t sure what dolphins talk about.

gives main idea, but leaves out supporting details

uses the author’s exact words without quotation marks

they may be calling for backup when they chatter with other dolphins.

not nearly as long as the original

slide17

Paraphrasing information

Here is another paraphrase. Is this one good? Why or why not?

Dolphins could be communicating about their feelings, planning their fishing strategy, or warning each other about possible dangers. Scientists aren’t quite sure. One scientist who works in the Bahamas, Denise Herzing, described an incident in which a dolphin who was being bullied returned with some friends the next day. She believes that dolphins may “call for backup” to others in the pod. “It’s as if the spotted dolphin communicated to his buddies that he needed their help,” she says.

Dolphins could be communicating about their feelings, planning their fishing strategy, or warning each other about possible dangers.Scientists aren’t

includes the main ideas and details from the passage

uses student’s own words

uses the author’s exact words in quotation marks

may “call for backup” to others in the pod. “It’s as if the spotted dolphin communicated to his buddies that he needed their help,” she says.

slide18

Using direct quotations

When you use an author’s exact words in your own work, you are making a direct quotation.Here are some guidelines for using direct quotations:

  • Quote the author directly only when his or her words communicate a powerful point.
  • Put quotation marks around each direct quotation.
  • Don’t overuse direct quotations. Less than ten percent of your research project should be direct quotations from your sources.
slide19

Using direct quotations

  • Here is an example of a source a student is planning to use:

Social Behavior

Dolphins in a pod appear to establish strong social bonds. Behavioral studies suggest that certain animals prefer association with each other and recognize each other after periods of separation. Mother-calf bonds are long-lasting; a calf typically stays with its mother three to six years or more. Adult male pair bonds are strong and long-lasting.

Next you’ll see some examples of quotations from this passage.

slide20

Using direct quotations

  • Is this an effective way to quote a portion of the source?

“Dolphins in a pod appear to establish strong social bonds.” Scientists have found that certain animals prefer to be together and recognize each other after they have been separated. “Mother-calf bonds are long lasting; a calf typically stays with its mother three to six years or more.”

“Dolphins in a pod appear to establish strong social bonds.”

the quotation is not a powerful point

certain animals prefer to be together and recognize each other after they have been separated. “Mother-calf bonds are long lasting; a calf typically stays with its mother three to six years or more.”

author’s words, not student’s own words

separated. “Mother-calf bonds are long lasting; a calf typically stays with its mother three to six years or more.”

quotations are overused

slide21

Using direct quotations

  • Is this an effective direct quotation?

When studying how dolphins bond, scientists have found that some dolphins “prefer association with each other and recognize each other after periods of separation.” Mothers and their calves may stay together for up to six years.

quotation communicates a powerful point

dolphins “prefer association with each other and recognize each other after periods of separation.” Mothers and their calves may stay together for up to six years.

student didn’t overuse quotations

tech tool webnote
Tech Tool: Webnote
  • Webnote is an online tool that you can use for taking notes.

To use Webnote, you first create a workspace with an original name. Each time you enter the name of your workspace at the Webnote homepage, it will take you back to your work.

tech tool webnote1
Tech Tool: Webnote
  • Create a new note by clicking the small, yellow square in the upper left corner.

When you use Webnote to record research sources, remember to add your source numbers!

On each note, type in the information you want to capture.

tech tool webnote2
Tech Tool: Webnote
  • With Webnote, you can change the background color of each note. You
  • might use a different color for every source.

You can also put the notecards in any order.

These two features will help you group cards as you think about how to organize your notes.

talk about it
Talk About It
  • Discuss these questions with your classmates.
  • What makes note taking such an important part of the research process?
  • How do you determine whether you should include a piece of information in your notes? What should you do if you’re not sure?
  • How do you know if you have found the right kind of information for your research?
  • How do you know when you have enough information to write your draft?
your turn
Your Turn
  • Read the article below and use the information to complete the activities on the next slide.
your turn1
Your Turn

Use the news article on the previous slide to complete the following tasks:

  • Create a note by summarizing information from the source.
  • Create a note by paraphrasing information from the source.
  • Create a note with a direct quotation from the source.
your turn2
Your Turn
  • Note with summarized information:
  • Note with paraphrased information:
  • Note with direct quotation: