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Drones and public opinion

Drones and public opinion. A/Prof John Fitzgerald Criminology, University of Melbourne . Source: http ://www.suasnews.com/2012/12/19965/foxkopter-australian-cricket-umpire/foxkopter-2 /. Outline . Drones and applications Public opinion Fear Future Fun Framing : Context sensitivity

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Drones and public opinion

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  1. Drones and public opinion A/Prof John Fitzgerald Criminology, University of Melbourne Source: http://www.suasnews.com/2012/12/19965/foxkopter-australian-cricket-umpire/foxkopter-2/

  2. Outline • Drones and applications • Public opinion • Fear • Future • Fun • Framing : Context sensitivity • Mission not the machine • The Feeling is the message

  3. Definitions :Drone taxonomy (CASA/ICAO)

  4. Public opinion: Boeing (2003) • MacSween-George, (2003) (n=120) • Acceptable applications for UAVs • Fire fighting, crop dusting, cargo transport • Four test conditions to influence opinion: • UAV information • Statistical data • Emotional influences • Combined statistical and emotional influences 2nd AIAA "Unmanned Unlimited" Conf. and Workshop & Exhibit A Public Opinion Survey- Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Cargo, Commercial, and Passenger Transportation

  5. Drone applications • Surveillance • War and conflict (Security) • Emergency services • Eco monitoring (ivory) • Industry monitoring (viticulture, chicken farms) • Environmental monitoring (Heat stress,drought) • Journalism (Christmas Island, Syria) • Entertainment (foxcopter, film making, ) • Delivery and logistics (text books, blood products)

  6. Public opinion • Looking-glass self (Cooley (1902) • Frame analysis (Goffman, 1974) • Spiral of silence (Noelle-Neumann,1984) • Role of media / fear (Altheide, 2002) • Framing • Agenda setting • Frame contestation (Brewer & Gross 2005; Chong & Druckman2007) • Affective vulnerability (Thrift, 2008) • Social media – human sensor networks • Gov2.0 Altheide, D.(2002)Creating Fear: News and the Construction of Crisis. New York: Aldine De Gruyter. Noelle-Neumann, E. (1984), The spiral of silence: Public opinion – our social skin, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  7. Public opinion • Blumer(1948) Polling and Public opinion • Fairclough(1991) Critical discourse analysis • Zetterberg (2003) Social science and opinion • Things we must express collectively – politics • Opinions that we may express – voxpopuli

  8. Framings Fun Fear Future

  9. Framings – fear • Military deployments • Armed UAVs • Domestic deployments • Privacy concerns • Physical safety - crowds

  10. Military Drones and public opinion • Do you approve or disapprove of of the US using drone strikes to target extremists http://www.pewglobal.org/database/indicator/52/

  11. Military Drones and public opinion • Full question: • “Do you approve or disapprove of the United States conducting missile strikes from pilotless aircraft called drones to target extremists in countries such as Pakistan, Yemen and Somalia? “ http://www.pewglobal.org/database/indicator/52/

  12. Military Drones and public opinion • Gallup (March 2013) • 65% in favour of using drones against suspected terrorists in other countries, 28% disapproved. • NBC News, Wall Street Journal(June 2013) • 66% in favour of using drones against suspected terrorists abroad , 16% opposed. • YouGov • 60% approved while 18% disapproved. • Same question with the caveat ‘even if innocent civilians may also be killed? • 25% approval , 52% opposed • http://affairstoday.co.uk/american-public-opinion-and-drone-strikes/#sthash.9zqhApVE.dpuf http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/10/23/report-questions-drone-use-widely-unpopular-globally-but-not-in-the-u-s/

  13. Fear : safety • Tam (2011) Purdue University Student report • Email questionnaire (n=158) • Midwestern university staff • International Society of Aircraft Traders (ISTAT) • Repeating MacSween (2003) Source: http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=atgrads

  14. Fear: Safety Passenger transport Source: http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=atgrads

  15. CCTV and public opinion • Ditton (2000) • Strong support (65-90%) • Context sensitive • Age, gender, time of day, location, prior victimisation • Approx. 33% concerned with privacy • No evidence that CCTV reduced fear of crime • High level of trust in police using data • 44% CCTV will erode civil liberties • 70% “CCTV might stop the innocent from being wrongly accused” • People more concerned about being viewed in streets than shops • “If CCTV cameras were installed in this street would you feel more safe or less safe alone at this time of day ?” • 42% the same • 56% safer • Making the safe feel safer, rather than making the unsafe feel safe

  16. Future: Media framing • US media • 60 Minutes – Amazon (December 2013) • Positioning Amazon before cyber Monday • Other drone PR stunts • Textbook drone delivery • Cake drone delivery • Pizza drone delivery • Parcel delivery drones • Beer delivery drones • Taco delivery drones • Sushi delivery drones • General delivery drones Source: http://www.businessinsider.com.au/why-amazon-announced-delivery-drones-2013-12

  17. Future: Medical supplies • Matternet – HIV AIDS blood tests deliveries DHL (Dec 2013, test flight Bonn, 3Kg medicine)http://www.myfoxny.com/Story/24172205/german-firm-testing-drones-to-deliver-goods

  18. Fun: Attitudes to drones logistics • Drone2Home (Netflix) parody Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=ucz3JpvDQjk

  19. Fun: Attitudes to drones logistics • Dominos domicopter • Dolphinsafari.com Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_tnQLPO-8TY Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bo_f8mV5khg&list=RDucz3JpvDQjk&index=13

  20. Image of delivery drones • Q: “Do you favor or oppose allowing private companies inside the United States to use unmanned drones to deliver packages ? “ | 31% favour | 44% oppose Source: https://today.yougov.com/news/2014/01/03/public-wary-commercial-drones/

  21. Image of delivery drones • Which of the following words do you think best describes Amazon’s announcement that it wants to use drones to deliver packages? Source: https://today.yougov.com/news/2014/01/03/public-wary-commercial-drones/

  22. Public opinion: Monmouth University • Monmouth public polling institute (August 2013) • General population (CATI weighted , n= 1012) • To ascertain levels of public support for different drone applications Source: http://www.monmouth.edu/assets/0/32212254770/32212254991/32212254992/32212254994/32212254995/30064771087/409aecfb-3897-4360-8a05-03838ba69e46.pdf

  23. Fear : Public opinion: Monmouth University • Do you support or oppose the use of drones to: Source: http://www.monmouth.edu/assets/0/32212254770/32212254991/32212254992/32212254994/32212254995/30064771087/409aecfb-3897-4360-8a05-03838ba69e46.pdf

  24. Fear: Public opinion: Monmouth University Source: http://www.monmouth.edu/assets/0/32212254770/32212254991/32212254992/32212254994/32212254995/30064771087/409aecfb-3897-4360-8a05-03838ba69e46.pdf

  25. Trust - CCTV

  26. Public opinion: Duke • Eyerman et al (2013) • Ohio Law enforcement (n=119, 16% response) • General population (online panel 2119: 59% response) • To enhance understanding of public perceptions and law enforcement concerns Source: http://sites.duke.edu/ihss/files/2013/06/UAS-Research-Brief.pdf

  27. Public opinion: Duke (2013) Public support by type of use – General population Source: http://sites.duke.edu/ihss/files/2013/06/UAS-Research-Brief.pdf

  28. Public opinion: Duke Applications – law enforcement Source: http://sites.duke.edu/ihss/files/2013/06/UAS-Research-Brief.pdf

  29. Public opinion: Duke Concerns– General population Source: http://sites.duke.edu/ihss/files/2013/06/UAS-Research-Brief.pdf

  30. Trust – regulation of commercial Source: https://today.yougov.com/news/2014/01/03/public-wary-commercial-drones/

  31. Trust – regulation of commercial Source: https://today.yougov.com/news/2014/01/03/public-wary-commercial-drones/

  32. Trust – regulation of commercial Source: https://today.yougov.com/news/2014/01/03/public-wary-commercial-drones/

  33. Contested framing • Cascading activation • Framing selects some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation” (Entman, 1993, p. 52) • Interpretive frames activate and spread from the top level of a stratified system to the network of nonadministration elites, and on to news organizations, their texts, and the public • Interpretations / contestations feed back from lower to higher levels • Frame contestation shapes public opinion Rowling et al (2013) International Journal of Communication 7:2231-2253

  34. Contested framing

  35. Public opinion: rationalist • Seven Stages of public opinion (Yankelovich 1991) • awareness, • a sense of urgency or a demand for action, • a search for solutions, • reaction and resistance, • wrestling with alternative choices, • intellectual assent, or resolution at the cognitive level, and • full resolution--moral, emotional, and intellectual. • Public opinion is shaky and unstable unless it reaches the maturity of the seventh stage. Yankelovich D (1991)

  36. Singapore Kindness movement • Wrestling emotions • Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=sj4A6g2GP30

  37. Happiness from the skies • Singapore kindness movement • May 2014, Guest workers + residents • "By deploying drone technology in a new, creative and entirely unexpected way, we created asimple delivery system that not only brought a little happiness to two disparate segments of society but also built an invisible bridge that connects the guest workers to the local community. It also forces us to completely re-evaluate our perceptions of drones that are so often associated with negative news reports and violence," added O&M AP CCO Eugene Cheong. Source: http://www.campaignbriefasia.com/2014/05/the-skies-were-filled-with.html

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