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Unit 2: Study of Matter. You may already know why ice floats. Ironically, if the ice was “dry,” it would sink. What explains that?. Unit 2 Objectives.

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Unit 2 study of matter

Unit 2: Study of Matter

You may already know why ice floats. Ironically, if the ice was “dry,” it would sink. What explains that?

Unit 2 objectives
Unit 2 Objectives

  • Definitions: matter, element, compound, mixture, (chemical) symbol, heterogeneous, homogeneous, metal, nonmetal, metalloid, physical change, chemical change, nuclear change, Laws of conservation, exothermic, endothermic, Kinetic Molecular Theory, real gas, ‘ideal’ gas, change of state, phase diagram, triple point, critical point.

  • Differentiate between elements, compounds, and mixtures.

  • Arrange a matter hierarchy.

  • Identify chemical symbols for elements.

  • Separate mixtures physically.

  • Differentiate between hetero- and homogeneous mixtures.

  • Sepearate metallic, nonmetallic, and metalloid elements.

  • Determine the physical and chemical properties of a substance.

  • Distinguish chemical and physical properties from chemical and physical changes.

  • Perform calculations using the Law of Definite Composition.

Unit 2 objectives pt 2
Unit 2 Objectives Pt.2

  • The Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) is based on the idea that particles in matter are always in motion.

  • The KMT can be applied to describe properties of solids, liquids, and gases.

  • Boiling, metling, freezing are among the physical processes that can alter a substances state.

  • How to interpret a phase diagram.

  • Identify the triple point and critical point.

  • (EFS D4) To use systems thinking and systems tools to identify patterns, impacts, and relationships between a product’s life cycle and the health of the system as a whole. Embed their understanding of the Materials cycle principle in their work.

  • (EFS D5) Articulate how human choices regarding consumption, production, distribution, and disposal of material goods affect our ability to thrive over time.

Essential questions
Essential Questions

  • How do the types of substances – elements and compounds – differ?

  • How do the states of matter differ according to the Kinetic Molecular Theory?


  • What are the characteristics of elements and compounds?

  • Why can’t a compound be separated by physical means?

  • What are the different categories of elements?

  • How do the properties of the general types of elements compare?

  • What are the characteristics of mixtures?

  • What physical means are used to separate mixtures?

  • What are the distinctions between matter and energy?

  • Why are chemical and physical properties important?

  • What is the importance of the Laws of Conservation of Matter and Energy and Definite Composition?

  • How are physical, chemical, and nuclear changes distinguished?

  • What is the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter?

  • How can the theory be used to describe matter?

  • How does a ‘real’ gas differ from an ‘ideal’ gas?

  • What is a change of state?

  • What occurs when a substance undergoes a change of state?

  • What is a phase diagram and how is it interpreted?

Your take
Your Take

  • Lasers (P1)

  • Does “empty” space have matter?

  • Antimatter

  • Lava Lamps

  • What is fire? (P4)

  • Black holes and matter

  • How much matter (atoms) is in our bodies?

  • What atoms are allowed to touch each other?

  • How do you split an atom?

  • Different colored lightbulbs (P6)

  • Where did the name “matter” come from?

  • Do we actually “touch” anything?

  • Invisible Ink (P7)

  • Glow in the dark stuff

  • Dark matter

Castagno chemistry challenge ii
Castagno Chemistry Challenge II

  • Rules:

    • 1) Do NOT help anyone else.

    • 2) You have a maximum of 10 minutes to complete the challenge.

    • 3) Credit only goes to COMPLETELY correct answers

    • 1st – 2pts, 2nd – 1pt, 3rd – 0pts, 4th – 0pts

    • Questions?

The challenge
The Challenge

  • Organize the matter hierarchy.

What is matter
What Is Matter?

  • As defined in Unit 1, matter is “anything that has mass and occupies space (volume)”

  • There are 3 visible in this picture, sort of.

Classification of
Classification of


Can it be separated?




Pure substances

Is the composition uniform?

Can it be decomposed by ordinary chemical means?





Homogeneous Mixtures

Heterogeneous mixtures





  • A mixture is a combination of two or more substances.

  • Substances can be elements or compounds.

  • Mixture can be easy to identify or not.

Solid solid
Solid - Solid

  • Jewelry alloys

  • Rocks

Solid liquid
Solid - Liquid

  • Iced Tea

  • Chocolate Milk

  • Aka Powdered-drink mixes

Liquid liquid

  • Liquid mixture

  • Vinegar and other household liquids

Liquid solid
Liquid - Solid

  • Mercury in Silver dental amalgam (filling)

Gas liquid
Gas – Liquid

  • Carbonated-


Gas gas
Gas – Gas

  • Atmosphere

Mixtures ii separation anxiety
Mixtures II – Separation Anxiety

  • Mixtures can be separated physically

    • Filters – based on particle size

    • Distillation – based on boiling point

    • Centrifuge – based on density


Homogeneous mixtures
Homogeneous Mixtures

  • Uniformity throughout the entire mixture.


Heterogeneous mixtures
Heterogeneous Mixtures

  • Easy to identify different materials within the sample.

    • Different colors stand out

    • Different densities settle into layers


Pure substances
Pure Substances

  • FIXED composition

    • Each sample (like salt) has the same

      • Composition (make-up)

      • Characteristics (color, density, etc.)



  • Composed of chemically bonded atoms of different elements

    • Individual Molecules (water)

    • Ionic crystals (salt)


Elements i
Elements (I)

  • A pure substance composed of atoms that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances.

Elements ii symbols
Elements (II) – Symbols

  • Every element is abbreviated with a symbol

    • Saves space on a periodic table

    • Makes writing formulas much easier

  • Some are common or make sense

    • C – carbon

    • Al – aluminum

  • But some seem very out of place…

Elements iii symbols ii
Elements (III) – Symbols (II)

  • Challenge #2 – Thou fhouldethputeththynenotebookf away.

  • Medieval Matching Game

Elements iv identification
Elements (IV) - Identification

  • Challenge #3 – Notebooks away!

    • The rare back-to-back challenge!

  • Can you identify the elements as metallic, nonmetallic, metalloid, or the single, very special, undecided one?

Elements examples
Elements Examples

  • 1) Worlds largest gold bar, 250kg

    • Estimated worth (9/30/13): $10,663,679 ($42.53/g)

  • 2) The Hope Diamond (carbon)

    • Estimated worth: $350,000,000 ($38,461,538/g)

  • 3) Chunks of Boron

    • Estimated worth: $11.14/g (pure)

Elements v metals
Elements (V) - Metals

  • As challenge #3 revealed, the majority of elements are metallic.

  • Typical properties associated with them

    • Conductors of heat and electricity

    • Malleable (sheets, foils)

    • Ductile (wires)

Elements vi nonmetals
Elements (VI) – Nonmetals

  • The second largest category of elements are nonmetallic

  • “Opposite” properties of the metals

    • Poor conductors of heat and electricity

    • Brittle

      • Typically break instead of flatten into sheets or wires

  • Of course, most nonmetals are gases so how can you flatten a gas anyway?

Elements viii metalloids
Elements (VIII) – Metalloids

  • Just a few elements, located on the “staircase,” have intermediate properties.

    • Less malleable than metals

    • Less brittle than nonmetals

    • Semiconductors

      • Not as conductive as a metal, more conductive than a nonmetal

Elements ix specialty
Elements (IX) – Specialty

  • Hydrogen!

    • Typically non-metallic with all associated properties

    • However, it is believed to behave as a metal inside the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn.

    • This metallic form helps explain the massive magnetic fields those planets have.


Check yourself
Check Yourself

  • Challenge #4 - Notebooks away!

  • Class Quiz

The grand unified states of matter
The Grand Unified States of Matter

  • The extremely rare double back-to-back Challenge #5 – Notebooks out!

  • Describe as much as possible of the 4 examples of matter located on the desks in the classroom.

States of matter
States of Matter

  • So we know there are 4 states of matter but do any others exist?

  • Fundamental (4)

    • Solid, liquid, gas, plasma

  • Non-classical (8*)

    • Glass, plastic crystal, liquid crystal, magnetically ordered (ferro-, antiferro, ferri- magnet), Copolymers, Quantum spin liquids

  • Low-Temperature States (7*)

    • Superfluid, Bose-Einstein Condensate, Fermionic condensate, Rydberg molecule, Quantum Hall State, Strange matter (quark), Photonic matter (formed September 2013)

  • High Energy States (3*)

    • Quark-gluon plasma, color-glass condensate, gravitational singularity (VERY high energy)

  • Other proposed states (6*)

    • Degenerate matter, supersolid, string-net liquid, superglass, dark matter, equilibrium gel

  • Total: 4 + 8 + 7 + 3 + 6 = 28 (source: wikipedia…)

Kinetic molecular theory
Kinetic Molecular Theory

  • Every state of matter, from the “normal” to the strange, have one thing in common:

  • Manner of definition

  • Each state of manner is defined by the movement of the particles within.

Kinetic molecular theory ii
Kinetic Molecular Theory II

  • The KMT is what describes the movement

  • It can be applied specifically to each state of matter


  • The Kinetic Molecular Theory has 5 distinct points for gases

    • 1) Individual particles are far apart relative to their size

    • 2) Collisions between particles and containers are elastic (no energy loss)

    • 3) Particles are in constant motion

    • 4) No forces of attraction between particles

    • 5) Temperature of the gas depends on the average kinetic energy of the particles

Gas ii
Gas II

  • Steam and smoke are good examples.

  • The KMT describes

    • 1) Indefinite shape (only containers define the shape)

    • 2) Indefinite volume (any amount “fills” a container)

Gas iii

  • 3) Low density &

  • 4) High compressibility

    • Gas particles are very far apart

  • 5) Fluidity

    • Gas particles always moving

Gas iv
Gas IV

  • 6) Expansion (Gas tanks)

    • Volume can grow

  • 7) Diffusion (Scented candle)

    • Spreading through an area

  • 8) Effusion (flat tire)

    • Escape tiny opening


  • What explains solids always keeping their shape?

    • 1) Specific, repeating pattern of atom arrangement

    • 2) Particles vibrate in position

Solid ii
Solid II

  • Lack of movement explains

    • 1) Definite volume

    • 2) Definite shape

    • 3) Incompressibility

  • Close arrangement results in

    • 4) Typically high density (solid v liquid v gas of the same substance)


  • Unlike solids, liquids particles are not in fixed positions

    • They do remain fairly close together

  • This allows a liquid to take any shape

Liquid ii
Liquid II

  • Shifting positions explains

    • Fluidity, Indefinite shape

  • Closeness of particles means

    • Definite volume

    • Still fairly dense (usually less so than the solid, water is an exception)

    • Relatively incompressible


  • Typical properties of a gas except most/all particles are ionized (charged)

  • Extremely common, albeit temporarily seen on Earth

St elmo s fire
St. Elmo’s Fire*

  • A weather phenomenon typically produced during thunderstorms.

  • There needs to be a

    sustained imbalance

    Of electric energy

    often found in places

    we would consider

    a ‘lightning rod.’

  • When a limit is,

    reached, the energy

    is discharged into

    the glow of ‘fire.’

Stop in the name of conservation
STOP! In the name of conservation!

  • Challenge #6 – Notebooks closed!

  • There are two major “laws” (among many) that we encounter in this class.

  • What are they?

Conservation of matter
Conservation of Matter

  • In chemical reactions, matter cannot be created nor destroyed.

  • 20g of reactants will form a minimum and maximum of 20g product.

Conservation of energy
Conservation of Energy

  • The amount of energy present in a system will remain constant.

  • The energy present could cause a change, such as melting of an ice cube, but overall energy is conserved.

Ch ch changes

  • Challenge #7 – Notebooks away!

  • There are 6 changes of state between solid, liquid, and gas.

  • Name the transition AND the associated change (ie: L -> G)


  • The characteristics of substances are known as “properties”




Physical properties
Physical Properties

  • Can be described by sight or feel…

    • Color

    • Texture

  • …or measured without changing the substance’s identity

    • Melting/Freezing Point,

    • Boiling Point

    • Density

Physical changes
Physical Changes

  • When a substance changes form but not identity

    • Crush

    • Tear

    • Rip

    • Boil

    • Freeze

    • Condense

    • Melt

    • Sublimate

    • Deposit


Chemical properties
Chemical Properties

  • Ability of a substance to undergo change to form a new substance

    • Aka identity changes

  • Cannot be determined by simply “looking” at the substance

Chemical changes
Chemical Changes

  • The substance undergoing a transformation into a new substance(s)

  • Adding sodium to water causes this 


Physical and chemical change
Physical and Chemical Change

  • Physical Change

    • The substance changes form

      • Melt, Boil, Freeze, Condense, Sublimate, Deposit, Crushed, Torn, Smashed

  • Chemical Change

    • The substance changes identity

      • React, Burn, Oxidize, Reduce

Phase diagrams
Phase Diagrams

  • Challenge #8.1 – Notebooks away!

  • Describe what is happening from

    • A to B

    • B to C

    • C to D

    • D to E

    • E to F

Phase diagrams1
Phase Diagrams

  • Challenge #8.2 – Notebooks away!

  • Describe what is happening from

    • A to B

    • B to C

    • C to D

    • D to E

    • E to F

Phase diagrams challenge answers
Phase Diagrams Challenge Answers

  • 8.1

    • A to B = solid heating

    • B to C = melting

    • C to D = liquid heating

    • D to E = boiling

    • E to F = vapor heating

  • 8.2

    • A to B = vapor cooling

    • B to C = condensing

    • C to D = liquid cooling

    • D to E = freezing

    • E to F = solid cooling

Phase diagram cooling
Phase Diagram - Cooling

  • A cool curve is a graph which shows the temperature of a substance decreasing over time.

  • Phase changes that occur during this process are

    • Condensing

    • Freezing

Phase diagram cooling ii
Phase Diagram – Cooling II

  • Phase changes occur during segments of no temperature change






Phase diagram cooling iii
Phase Diagram – Cooling III

  • Condensing (Gas to Liquid)

    • The process of a gas becoming a liquid

    • Requires a LOSS of energy (cooling)

  • Freezing (Liquid to Solid)

    • The process of a liquid becoming a solid

    • Requires a LOSS of energy (cooling)

Phase diagram heating
Phase Diagram - Heating

  • A heating curve is a graph which shows the temperature of a substance increasing over time.

  • Phase changes that occur during this process are

    • Melting

    • Boiling

Phase diagram heating ii
Phase Diagram – Heating II

  • Phase changes occur during segments of no temperature change






Phase diagram heating iii
Phase Diagram – Heating III

  • Melting (Solid to Liquid)

    • The process of a solid becoming a liquid

    • Requires a GAIN of energy (heating)

  • Boiling (Liquid to Gas)

    • The process of a liquid becoming a gas

    • Requires a GAIN of energy (heating)

Phase diagram review
Phase Diagram - Review

  • Whether heating (L) or cooling (R), CHANGES IN STATE occur on the FLAT LINES

    • Boiling/Condensing – higher

    • Melting/Freezing – lower





Phase diagram y
Phase Diagram - Y

  • Challenge #9 – Notebooks away!

Phase diagram y1
Phase Diagram - Y

  • Label

    • X, Y, Z, D, and E

    • X  Z?

    • Z  X?

    • X  Y?

    • Y  X?

    • Y  Z?

    • Z  Y?

Phase diagram y2
Phase Diagram - Y

  • Label

    • X = Solid

    • Y = Liquid

    • Z = Gas

    • D = Triple Point

    • E = Critical Point

    • X  Z = sublimation

    • Z  X = deposition

    • X  Y = melting

    • Y  X = freezing

    • Y  Z = boiling

    • Z  Y = condensation

Phase diagram y ii
Phase Diagram – Y II

  • Area “X” is always a solid

  • Area “Y” is always a liquid

  • Area “Z” is always a gas

  • On the line = both (equilibrium)

  • Critical Point = liquid state cannot exist beyond this temperature

  • Triple Point = all 3 states of matter in equilibrium

Phase diagram y iii
Phase Diagram – Y III

  • Sublimation (Solid to gas)

    • The process of a solid becoming a gas by SKIPPING the liquid state

    • Requires a GAIN of energy (heating)

  • Deposition (Gas to Solid)

    • The process of a gas becoming a solid by SKIPPING the liquid state

    • Requires a LOSS of energy (cooling)

  • Note: Since the Y-diagram is a pressure/temperature comparison, ANY change can occur by simply altering the pressure.