The Scientific Method

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# The Scientific Method - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

The Scientific Method. Steps to the Scientific Method ( PRHEAD ). P roblem  State the problem R esearch H ypothesis form a hypothesis E xperiment design & conduct experiment A nalyze Collected Data D raw Conclusion support or reject hypothesis. P-Problem  State the Problem.

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### The Scientific Method

• Problem State the problem
• Research
• Hypothesis form a hypothesis
• Experiment design & conduct experiment
• Analyze Collected Data
• Draw Conclusion support or reject hypothesis
P-Problem  State the Problem
• Gives you a reason for doing the experiment
• This question MUST be testable/measurable
Process It…Testable or Not?

Do cats make better pets than dogs?

Process It…Testable or Not?

How do different types of movement/activity affect human heart rate?

Process It…Which is testable?
• Which is the tastiest soda?
• How many people will choose Dr. Pepper over Coke?
R-Research
• In order to make an educated guess (hypothesis), you need to find out more information about the problem you are trying to solve.
• Ex: research various oils and their properties.
H-Hypothesis  form a hypothesis
• A hypothesis is an educated guess about the solution to your problem based on your research.
• This is done with an “if / then” statement. .
• Ex: If I use Havoline car oil then my Lamborghini Diablo will get better gas mileage.
Hypothesis MUST be:
• Testable/ Fact-based-“Dr. Pepper is the tastiest soda” is not fact-based, it’s based on opinion, and therefore can not be a hypothesis.
• A sentence, not a question!!
Process It…Testable or Not?

If I use Havoline car oil then it will be better than Mobile Oil.

Process It…Testable or Not?
• If I use Havoline car oil then my Lamborghini Diablo will get better gas mileage.
E-Experiment  Design and conduct experiment
• This is done to test the hypothesis.
• Design an experiment that will provide data to support or reject your hypothesis.
• Ex: Test four different car oils found during research
Parts of an Experiment
• Independent Variable – The part of an experiment that you change.
• EX: car oil
• Dependent Variable- What you are recording/observing. It changes according to how the independent variable changes
• Ex: gas mileage
• ONLY test one variable at a time!!!!!!!!!!
Parts of an Experiment
• Constant variables- quantities that remain constant (the same) aka “controlled variables”
• Ex: same car, same road
• Control group- what is used to COMPARE the results to. It is the variable in which no independent variable has been applied.
• Ex: test run with the original brand of oil in the car
A-Analyze Collected Data
• Observations are recorded facts about what you see during the experiment.
• Graph: IV’s go on the x-axis

DV’s go on y-axis

D-Draw Conclusion Support or reject hypothesis
• This is a brief statement about the results of the experiment.
• In the conclusion state if the hypothesis was correct (supported) or incorrect (rejected).
• Claim, evidence, reasoning
Observation or Inference

Observation- See with own eyes(ex; the apple is red, it is raining outside, the window is 6ft long

Inference:What you think might be true but not sure.

(ex: She is wiping her eyes, she is crying, He has hair on his shirt, he owns a cat)

Types of Observations
• Qualitative – Results are descriptive.
• ex: the litmus paper turned red
• Quantitative – Results are numerical and have a unit.
• ex: 5 meters, 45 seconds
Accuracy vs Precision
• Accuracy- nearness to the actual value
• Precision- how close the data is together
Accuracy and precision: the target example

Neither accurate, nor precise