Acids, Bases, and pH Isotonic Solutions Hypertonic Solutions Hypotonic Solutions
The pH Scale • The pH scale is a measurement of how acidic or basic a solution is. • Measures the concentration of H+ ions. • pH of 0-6 indicate an acidic substance • pH of 8-14 indicates a basic substance • pH of 7 indicates a neutral solution
Acids, Bases, and pH • Acids are compounds that form hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution. • Strong acids tend to have pH values that range from 1 to 3. • Bases are compounds that form hydroxide ions (OH-) in a solution. • Strong bases, such as lye, tend to have pH values ranging from 11 to 14.
Buffers • Controlling pH is important for maintaining homeostasis. • One of the ways that the body controls pH is through dissolved compounds called buffers. • These are weak acids or bases that react with strong acids or bases to prevent sudden, sharp changes in pH. • Cells in the human body must generally be kept between 6.5 and 7.5. • If the pH is higher or lower , it will affect the chemical reactions that take place in the cells. • Controlling the pH of cells is important for maintaining homeostasis.
Solutions and Mixtures • A mixture is a substance that is made of two or more elements physically mixed together • Example: Mixing Skittles and M&Ms together • A solution is a type of mixture where one substance is dissolved in another. • Solute- the substance that is dissolved • Solvent- the substance that does the dissolving • Example: Water and Kool Aid
Types of Solutions: Isotonic, Hypotonic, Hypertonic Isotonic Solution: the concentration of dissolved substances in the solution is the same as the concentration of dissolvedsubstances in the cell. The amount of water in the cell is even with its environment.
Hypotonic Solution: the concentration of dissolved substances is lower in the solution outside the cell than the concentration inside the cell. There is more water outside of the cell than inside the cell, so water moves in and the cell swells.
Hypertonic Solution: the concentration of dissolved substances outside the cell is higher than the concentration inside the cell. There is more water in the cell than outside the cell, so water moves out and causes the cell to shrink.
Blood in different solutions: Isotonic Solution Hypertonic Solution Hypotonic Solution
Animal Cell Plant Cell Because plant cells have rigid cell walls, they will not burst like an animal cell will.