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What is Diabetes? • A disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood. • Three types of Diabetes: • Type 1 • Type 2 • Gestational • Diabetes affects more than 20 million Americans and over 40 million Americans have pre-diabetes.
What causes Diabetes? • When your body doesn’t produce enough insulin, resistance to insulin, or both. • Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar.
Symptoms • Vision changes • Excess thirst • Fatigue • Frequent urination • Hunger • Weight loss • Tingling or numbness in hands or feet • Feeling very tired much of the time • More infections than usual • Very dry skin • Sores that are slow to heal
Type I Diabetes • Previously called, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile-onset diabetes. • Pancreas cannot produce insulin. • Glucose (sugar) is built up in the bloodstream instead of going to the cells for energy. • Most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, and young adults. • Makes up about 5% of diagnosed cases of diabetes.
Type II Diabetes • Previously called, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or adult-onset diabetes. • When your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin. (Insulin resistance) • Sugar can not enter cells so it builds up in the blood. • Makes up for 90-95% of diagnosed cases of diabetes. • Keeping a healthy diet and active lifestyle can help prevent type II diabetes.
Gestational Diabetes • Only pregnant women can get this type of diabetes. • Pregnancy hormones block insulin from doing its job. • Can cause problems in the mother and baby if not treated. • Develops in 2-10% of pregnancies. • Usually disappears when pregnancy is over.
What is Cancer? • Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. • New cells grow when your body doesn’t need them and old cells don’t die off when they should. • Extra cells form a mass called a tumor. • Tumors: • Benign- non-cancerous • Malignant- cancer • Can develop in almost any organ or tissue.
General Signs and Symptoms • Unexplained Weight Loss • Fever • Fatigue • Pain • Skin Changes • There are more specific symptoms with different types of cancers.
Causes of Cancer • Benzene and other chemicals • Drinking excess alcohol • Environmental toxins • Excessive sunlight exposure • Genetic problems • Obesity • Radiation • Viruses • The cause of many cancers are still unknown
Common Cancers • Men in the United States: • Prostate • Lung • Colon • Women in the United States: • Breast • Colon • Lung • Most common cancer-related death is from lung cancer.
Other Types of Cancers • Brain cancer • Cervical cancer • Hodgkin's lymphoma • Kidney cancer • Leukemia • Liver cancer • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma • Ovarian cancer • Skin cancer • Testicular cancer • Thyroid cancer • Uterine cancer
Common Tests • Biopsy of the tumor • Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) • Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) • Chest x-ray • Complete blood count (CBC) • CT scan • MRI scan
Treatments • Surgery • Radiation- uses high energy to kill tumor cells without harming healthy cells. • Chemotherapy- Uses drugs to kill cancer cells.
What is Cardiovascular Disease? • Narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries (blood vessels that supple blood to the heart). • Atherosclerosis- plaque builds up in the walls of arteries. • Leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. • In the United States, someone has a heart attack every 34 seconds. Each minute, someone in the United States dies from a heart disease-related event.
Types of Cardiovascular Disease • Coronary Artery Disease (most common) • Plaque buildup in your coronary arteries that leads to blockages. • Can cause heart attacks. • Stroke • Ischemic stroke (most common stroke)- blood vessel that feeds to the brain gets blocked. • Hemorrhagic stroke- blood vessel in the brain bursts from uncontrolled hypertension. • Heart Failure • Heart doesn’t pump blood as well as it should be. • Arrhythmia • Abnormal rhythm of the heart. • Heart Valve Disease • Heart valves don’t open enough to allow blood to flow as well as it should be.
Treatment • Heart Valve Problems • Medications • Heart Valve Surgery • Arrhythmia • Medications • Pacemaker • Cardiac Defibrillation • Heart Attack • Medications • Coronary Angioplasty (procedure to open blocked or narrow arteries) • Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (surgery to improve blood flow to the heart) • Stroke • Medications • Carotid Endarterectomy (surgery to remove fatty deposits blocking the arteries)
Risk Factors • High cholesterol • High blood pressure • Diabetes • Cigarette smoking • Overweight and obesity • Poor diet • Physical inactivity • Alcohol use
Prevention • Control your blood pressure • Lower your cholesterol • Don't smoke • Get enough exercise • Eat a healthy diet