Cardiac Out Put. Lecture by Dr.Mohammed Sharique Ahmed Quadri Assistant professor ,Physiology. CARDIAC OUTPUT. What is Cardiac Output? It is volume of the blood pumped out by each ventricle per minute .It is about 5 – 5.5 Lit/min Cardiac Output [COP ]
Dr.Mohammed Sharique Ahmed Quadri
Assistant professor ,Physiology
What is Cardiac Output?
= Heart rate × Stroke volume
= 70 beats/min × 70ml/beat
= 4900 ml/min ≈ 5liters/min
- By increasing stroke volume and heart rate.
What is Cardiac Index ?
body surface area.
What is Cardiac Reserve ?
Stroke Volume: It is a volume of blood pumped out by each ventricle per beat. It is about 70 - 80 ml.
Stroke volume (SV) = EDV – ESV
It is about 120 – 130 ml.
X 100 = 62.5%
Normal ejection fraction is about 60 – 65 %.
Ejection fraction is good index of ventricular function.
Increase Parasympathetic activity
Increase sympathetic activity
i).Increased Blood Volume
ii).Skeletal Muscle Pump
iv).Increased Sympathetic Vasoconstriction
v).Cardiac suction effect
EF = [SV ÷ EDV] × 100
1. Fick Principle
2. Dye Dilution Method
3. Doppler Combined with Echocardiography
Output of Left Ventricle
Oxygen Uptake by lungs ml/min
AO2 - VO2
200 ml / min
200 ml / L – 160 ml / L
Art blood – Venous blood
40ml / liter
= 5 L/min
What is Heart Failure ?
1. Heart Attack or Myocardial Infarction
2. Working against Increased after load e.g. hyper tension or aortic valve stenosis
Treatment of Heart failure
-- positive Inotropic drugs e.g. digitalis
-- diuretics - to get rid of salt and water
-- ACE Inhibitors [Angiotensin Converting Enzyme] inhibitors which decrease preload and after load.