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BATTLE OF MIDWAY. EXTERIOR EXHIBITS VIDEO: CODE BREAKERS - KEY TO VICTORY. F1. F2. Still photo. F3. Still photo. YouTube : How Pearl Harbor was Attacked. The True Story (2:20) – Japanese planes dropping bombs – F1 (2:22) – Bombs/explosions – US battle ships – F2

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battle of midway

BATTLE OF MIDWAY

EXTERIOR EXHIBITS VIDEO:

CODE BREAKERS - KEY TO VICTORY

slide2

F1

F2

Still photo

F3

Still photo

  • YouTube: How Pearl Harbor was Attacked. The True Story
    • (2:20) – Japanese planes dropping bombs – F1
    • (2:22) – Bombs/explosions – US battle ships – F2
    • (2:39) – Ships on fire, black smoke – F3 (Add’l footage: 3:04-3:45)

In early 1942, following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States knew that the Imperial Japanese Navy was preparing to strike again.

1a

slide3

F4

F5

YouTube: Pearl Harbor The View From Japan 1994:

Footage of aftermath of PH attack – F4

Vimeo: Codebreaking Victory:

(1:36-3:34) – burning/destroyed ships – F5

But what the U.S. Navy didn’t know was where…or when.

1b

slide4

F6

Vimeo: Codebreaking Victory: The Midway Battle

(9:50) – Jap code with Jap characters – F6

That vital information was hidden in coded Japanese Naval message traffic. The code was made up of 33,000 words, phrases and letters expressed in strings of numbers.

2a

slide5

F7

Vimeo: Codebreaking Victory: The Midway Battle

(9:10) – Jap code over battle footage. Jap armed forces – F7

Cracking the code would give the US a chance to strategically prepare for battle. Failure to break the code would spread the United States limited combat resources too thin, putting them at a strategic disadvantage.

2b

slide6

F7 Continued

Vimeo: Codebreaking Victory: The Midway Battle

(9:10) – Jap code over battle footage. Jap armed forces – F7 Continued

It was code breaking and traffic analysis that would become our best first line of defense.

2c

slide7

Inside a windowless basement room code named “HYPO,” located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, a team of U.S. Navy code breakers worked to intercept, decipher and analyze the Japanese Naval Code they named “JN-25.”

3a

slide8

JN-25

Inside a windowless basement room code named “HYPO,” located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, a team of U.S. Navy code breakers worked to intercept, decipher and analyze the Japanese Naval Code they named “JN-25.”

3b

slide9

F8

F9

Vimeo: Codebreaking Victory: The Midway Battle

(8:02 ) Footage of punch cards stacked and CU of one superimpose – F8

(8:17) Punch cards stacked up/guy working – F9

They relied on their superior language and mathematical skills and used simple punch card tabulating machines and cipher machines in an attempt to break the Japanese code.

3c

slide10

This team of highly dedicated individuals was under the direction of Commander Joseph J. Rochefort.

3d

slide11

Still photo

Still photo

Still photo

A brilliant linguist gifted in crypto analysis, Rochefort’s impeccable attention to detail had supplied accurate information about earlier Japanese battle plans -

4a

slide12

F10

F11

YouTube: Pearl Harbor the View from Japan 1994

(28:50) – Nimitz & Rochefort working – F10

(28:57) – Nimitz, Rochefort & team working (pull on still) – F11

- reports that convinced Admiral Chester Nimitz of the powerful value of Rochefort’s intelligence team.

4b

slide14

Then, using their fluency in Japanese they identified commonly used language styles. Patterns emerged and were soon recognized.

5b

slide15

F12

Vimeo: Codebreaking Victory: The Midway Battle

Footage of HYPO code breakers working -F12

Still photo

Personnel assigned to Station HYPO often worked 36 hour shifts, deciphering hundreds of messages …

6a

slide16

F13

F14

Vimeo: Codebreaking Victory: The Midway Battle

(7:47) – 2 guys working – pull – F13

(7:54) – guys looking at punch cards – F14

…selecting them from thousands transmitted by the Japanese each day, sorting through the clutter to find true kernels of intelligence.

6b

slide17

“AF”

They finally experienced a breakthrough when they determined that the Japanese code group “AF” stood for two possible locations – the Aleutian Islands in Alaska, or Midway Island.

6c

slide18

Rochefort and his unit identified AF as Midway Island. Based on their previous successes, Admiral Nimitz had confidence in their report.

6d

slide19

-OR-

Still photo: War Dept 1942

Still Photo: Washington leaders WWII

DVD: 360 Battle /History Channel:

(7:32) – shot or radio tower turning *NOTE: could not grab a still off the DVD

Yet Navy leaders in Washington were not convinced.

7a

slide20

To satisfy the doubters and validate his information, Rochefort developed a plan to send an un-coded message to see if the Japanese would intercept it and respond.

7b

slide21

To satisfy the doubters and validate his information, Rochefort developed a plan to send an un-coded message to see if the Japanese would intercept it and respond.

7c

slide22

To satisfy the doubters and validate his information, Rochefort developed a plan to send an un-coded message to see if the Japanese would intercept it and respond.

7d

slide23

To satisfy the doubters and validate his information, Rochefort developed a plan to send an un-coded message to see if the Japanese would intercept it and respond.

7e

slide24

To satisfy the doubters and validate his information, Rochefort developed a plan to send an un-coded message to see if the Japanese would intercept it and respond.

7f

slide25

F15

Vimeo: Codebreaking Victory: The Midway Battle

(13:45) – telegraph of low water supply/CU of message – F15

The message that “water supplies were running low on Midway Island,” was intercepted by the Japanese. They advised their commanders, “water supplies are low on ‘AF’.”

8a

slide26

F15

“WATER SUPPLIES ARE RUNNING LOW ON MIDWAY ISLAND.”

Vimeo: Codebreaking Victory: The Midway Battle

(13:45) – telegraph of low water supply/CU of message – F15

The message that “water supplies were running low on Midway Island,” was intercepted by the Japanese. They advised their commanders, “water supplies are low on ‘AF’.”

8b

slide27

F15

“WATER SUPPLIES ARE RUNNING LOW ON MIDWAY ISLAND.”

“WATER SUPPLIES ARE RUNNING LOW ON AF.”

Vimeo: Codebreaking Victory: The Midway Battle

(13:45) – telegraph of low water supply/CU of message – F15

The message that “water supplies were running low on Midway Island,” was intercepted by the Japanese. They advised their commanders, “water supplies are low on ‘AF’.”

8c

slide28

F17

F16

YouTube: Battle of Midway (Ford)

(1:35) – US ships/boats docked at Midway – F16

(2:00) – US Marines marching on Midway– F17

Intelligence confirmed! “AF” was the code for Midway. Soon, a battle strategy was in place to defend the Island.

9a

slide29

F19

F18

YouTube: Admiral Yamamoto Documentary

(1:28) Japanese radio / transmitter machine – F18

YouTube: War in the Pacific, Coral Sea

(6:22) – Naval radio guys (intercepting messages) – F19

Station HYPO also discovered the date code in JN-25, and later uncovered details on Japanese ships and aircraft assigned to attack Midway.

9b

slide30

F20

F21

YouTube: War in the Pacific, Coral Sea

(6:22) – Naval radio guys (intercepting messages) – F20

Vimeo: Codebreaking Victory: The Midway Battle –

(12:50) – Capitan Holmes (HYPO personnel) – F21

HYPO used only select pieces of the code to keep the Japanese from knowing that the US was monitoring their transmissions.

10a

slide31

F22

F23

F24

YouTube: Pearl Harbor the View from Japan 1994

(18:04) – Yamamoto at desk – F22

(15:44) – Japanese pilots on deck meeting – F23

(:18) – Jap carrier deck with planes ready & flight crews – F24

As a result, the Japanese never learned that their Midway code was deciphered until after the war.

10b

slide32

F25

F27

F28

F26

YouTube: Battle of Midway (Ford):

(6:16) – Anti-aircraft guns on Midway – F25

(7:16) – Damage/burning bldgs – F26

(7:37) – US troops raising Am. flag – F27

(7:56) – black smoke from burning bldgs – F28

Because of Commander Rochefort and his code breakers’ historic breakthrough, the US knew to prepare for an attack on Midway Island.

11

slide33

F29

F30

F31

YouTube: Battle of Midway (Ford):

(6:09) – Anti-aircraft guns on Midway – F29

(8:04) – WS burning buildings – F30

(12:54) – Two US troops on Midway after attack – F31

Winning the Battle of Midway kept Japan from advancing their conquest in the Pacific and shortened the war by more than a year.

12a

slide34

Various stills as options

It was also a defining moment for code breaking, helping the US Navy to win the most strategic battle in the Second World War.

12b