Plant environment soil
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Plant Environment: Soil - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Plant Environment: Soil. Components of soil. Weathered rocks (particles). Soil. Decomposing organic matter. Spaces containing water an air. Living organisms (particularly bacteria, fungi, protists). Functions for plants. Substance in which to anchor plants.

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Plant environment soil
Plant Environment: Soil

  • Components of soil

  • Weathered rocks (particles)

  • Soil

  • Decomposing organic matter

  • Spaces containing water an air

  • Living organisms (particularly bacteria, fungi, protists)

  • Functions for plants

  • Substance in which to anchor plants

  • Source of mineral elements (except C)

  • Source of water and oxygen

Plant environment soil1
Plant Environment: Soil

  • Mineralsoils = soils with less than 20% organic matter

  • Texture characteristics

  • Mineral soil

  • Based on relative amounts of sand, silt and clay

  • Sand: large mineral particles (course grain)

  • Silt: medium mineral particles (medium grain)

  • Clay: small, flat mineral particles (fine grain)

Plant environment soil2
Plant Environment: Soil

  • Texture types used for horticulture

  • Sand (> 70% sand)

  • Mineral soil

  • Water drains through quickly; vulnerable to drought

  • Little organic matter

  • Lose nutrients quickly

  • Sandy loam (> 50% sand with remainder silt and clay)

  • Enough silt and clay to hold water and nutrients

  • Warm quickly in spring (used for early-season crops)

Plant environment soil3

Plant Environment: Soil

  • Texture types used for horticulture

  • Loam (about same amount of all particle types)

  • Mineral soil

  • Good drainage, but with adequate nutrient and water retention

  • Horticulturally productive soils

  • Silt Loam (> 50% silt, remainder sand and clay)

  • Smooth, flour-like soil

  • Hold large amounts of water

Plant environment soil4
Plant Environment: Soil

  • Texture types used for horticulture

  • Clay (> 50% clay, remainder sand and silt)

  • Mineral soil

  • Poor drainage, poor aeration, easily compacted

  • Poor for horticultural production

Plant environment soil5
Plant Environment: Soil

  • Texture and water movement

  • Water moves between soil particles down through soil

  • Mineral soil

  • Abrupt changes in soil texture stop flow of water through soil

  • Water accumulates above change in texture (= perchedwatertable)

  • Perched water table inhibits root growth (no oxygen)

  • Avoid perched water tables by mixing different soil textures (for potted plants, transplanting trees)

Plant environment soil6
Plant Environment: Soil

  • Soil with more than 20% organic matter

  • Muck soil (highly decomposed)

  • Organic soils

  • Peat (slightly decomposed)

  • Usually formed under long-term conditions of excess moisture

  • sphagnum peat main component of potting mixes

  • Greatly improved water holding of soil

Plant environment soil7
Plant Environment: Soil

  • Soil pH not constant; changes with fertilizers, irrigation

  • Soil pH

  • soil pH influences plant growth by:

  • Altering nutrient availability (e.g. several micronutrients most soluble at low pH; several macronutrients least soluble at low pH)

  • Influencing soil microorganisms (e.g. potato grown in acidic soil to escape fungal pathogen)

  • Direct effects of acidification (most plants can tolerate relatively low soil pH)

Plant environment soil8
Plant Environment: Soil

  • Effective ways to prevent erosion of topsoil and leaching of nutrients

  • Soil management

  • Plant cover crops in winter

  • Maintain wind breaks; trees and shrubs along edges of agricultural fields

  • Special planting methods such as contour planting, terracing on slopes, no tillage, mulches

Plant environment soil9
Plant Environment: Soil

  • Most field soils not appropriate for containers

  • Not free of toxic substances and undesirable organisms

  • Media used in containers

  • Become compacted with repeated waterings

  • Soilless potting mixes used in most greenhouses:

  • Sphagnum peat

  • Partly decomposed bark

  • Vermiculite

  • Perlite

Plant environment soil10
Plant Environment: Soil

  • Advantages of using mulch

  • Water conservation (reduce evaporative water loss)

  • Mulch

  • Weed control

  • Temperature modification (reduce temperature fluctuations)

  • Protect soil from erosion

  • Improve soil structure as mulch decays

  • Retain nutrients

  • Reduce some insect pests (aphids avoid white plastic mulch)

  • Hydroseeding of turf

Plant environment soil11
Plant Environment: Soil

  • Nonorganic

  • Plastic sheeting

  • Types of Mulch

  • Black used to prevent growth of weeds and heat soil

  • Used for high-value crops (e.g. strawberries, tomatoes)

  • Organic

  • Straw, wood chips, shredded bark, dry pine leaves

  • Provides organic matter as decomposes; aggregates soil particles and improves drainage and aeration (but must add N for microbes)

  • Blocks light and therefore controls weed growth

  • Reduces soil erosion and nutrient leaching

  • Reduces soil temperature