Introduction to pharmacology
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Introduction to Pharmacology. Overview. Pharmaceutics Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics. Pharmaceutics. Different dosage forms have different pharmaceutical properties. Drug absorption of various preparations Liquids Fastest Powders Tablets 

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Presentation Transcript

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Overview

  • Pharmaceutics

  • Pharmacokinetics

  • Pharmacodynamics


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Pharmaceutics

  • Different dosage forms have different pharmaceutical properties.

    • Drug absorption of various preparations

      • Liquids Fastest

      • Powders

      • Tablets 

      • Enteric-coated tablets Slowest


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Pharmacokinetics

  • Absorption

    • Bioavailability

    • First Pass Effect

  • Distribution

  • Metabolism

  • Excretion


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Pharmacodynamics

  • Onset, Peak, & Duration

    • Onset - time it takes for a therapeutic response.

    • Peak – maximum therapeutic response

    • Duration – length of time that drug [ ] is sufficient

  • Agonists & Antagonists


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More Pharmacology

  • Therapeutic Window

  • Peak & Trough Levels

  • Loading Dose


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Pharmacodynamics

  • Side Effects

  • Adverse Reactions

  • Toxic effects/Toxicity


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Nursing Implications

  • Assessment

  • Implementation (types of therapies)

    • Acute

    • Maintenance

    • Supplemental

    • Palliative

    • Supportive

    • Prophylactic


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Nursing Implications

  • Monitoring

    • Therapeutic index

    • Drug [ ]

    • Patient’s condition

    • Tolerance and Dependence

    • Interactions


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Life Span Considerations

  • Polypharmacy and Drug Use

  • Physiologic Changes

    • Slowed gastric emptying

    • Gastric pH is less acidic

    • GFR decreased by 40-50%


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Sample Question

  • A client complains of pain and asks the nurse for pain medication. The nurse first assesses vital signs and finds them to be as follows:

    BP 134/92, pulse 90, and respirations 20. The nurse’s most appropriate action is to:

    A. Give the medication

    B. Ask if the client is anxious

    C. Check the client dressing for bleeding

    D. Recheck the clients vital signs in 30 minutes


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Sample Question

  • A client is nauseated, has been vomiting for several hours, and needs to receive an antinausea medication. The nurse recognizes that which of the following is accurate?

    A. An enteric-coated medication should be given.

    B. Medication will not be absorbed as easily because of the nausea.

    C. A parental route is the route of choice.

    D. A rectal suppository must be administered


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