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INTRODUCTION to PHARMACOLOGY. MEDICINE IN ANCIENT EGYPT. EARLY MESOPOTAMIAN CULTURE. PRIMITIVE AMERICAN INDIAN CULTURES. HIPPOCRATES: MEDICINE BECAME A SCIENCE. TERMS to REMEMBER. DRUG PHARMACOLOGY CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY pharmacokinetics pharmacodynamics PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS.

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Presentation Transcript
slide5

EARLY MESOPOTAMIAN CULTURE

PRIMITIVE AMERICAN INDIAN CULTURES

terms to remember
TERMS to REMEMBER
  • DRUG
  • PHARMACOLOGY
  • CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
  • pharmacokinetics
  • pharmacodynamics
  • PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS
properties of ideal drug
PROPERTIES OF IDEAL DRUG
  • EFFECTIVENESS (EFFICACY)
  • SAFETY
  • SELECTIVITY
  • REVERSIBILITY
  • PREDICTABILITY
  • EASE OF ADMINISTRATION
  • LACK OF DRUG INTERACTIONS
  • LOW COST
  • Chemical stability
  • SIMPLE NAME
individual variation
INDIVIDUAL VARIATION

Ch.8

  • AGE
  • GENDER
  • WEIGHT
  • KIDNEYS
  • LIVER
  • GENETIC
nurse s role patient care
NURSE’S ROLE(patient care)
  • PREADMINISTRATION ASSESSMENT
  • DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION
  • EVALUATING & PROMOTING THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS
  • MINIMIZING ADVERSE EFFECTS
  • MINIMIZING ADVERSE INTERACTIONS
  • MAKING PRN DECISIONS
  • MANAGING TOXCITY
nurse s role patient education
NURSE’S ROLE(patient education)
  • DRUG NAME & THERAPEUTIC CATEGORY
  • DOSAGE
  • SCHEDULE
  • ROUTE OF ADMIN
  • EXPECTED RESPONSE
  • MEASURES TO ENHANCE RESPONSE
  • DURATION OF TX
  • METHOD OF STORAGE
  • INTERACTIONS
  • WHO TO CALL
nursing process
NURSING PROCESS
  • ASSESSMENT
  • ANALYSIS (nursing diagnosis)
  • PLANNING
  • IMPLEMENTATION
  • EVALUATION
legislation
LEGISLATION
  • 1906 – Pure Food and Drug Act
    • free of adulterants (nothing @safety or effectiveness)
  • 1938 – Food Drug and Cosmetic Act
    • 1st to regulate safety
  • 1962 – Harris- Kefauver Amendments
    • proof of effectiveness
  • 1970 – Controlled Substances Act
    • regulates drugs with potential for abuse
  • 1992 – accelerated approval
  • 1997 – FDA Modernization Act
  • 2002 – BEST PHARMACEUTICALS FOR CHILDREN ACT
  • 2003 – PEDIATRIC RESEARCH EQUITY ACT
drug development
DRUG DEVELOPMENT
  • PRECINICAL TESTING – 1-5 yrs
    • evaluation of drug prior to testing in humans (toxicities, pharmacokinetics, useful biological effects)
  • CLINICAL TRIALS – 2-10 yrs
    • Phase 1 – nl volunteers
    • Phase II and III - patients to determine safety, effectiveness and dose ranges
    • Phase IV- post market surveillance
pharmacokinetics
PHARMACOKINETICS
  • ABSORPTION
  • DISTRIBUTION
  • METABOLISM
  • EXCRETION
types of absorption
TYPES OF ABSORPTION
  • PASSIVE ABSORPTION
  • ACTIVE ABSORPTION
  • PINOCYTOSIS
factors that affect absorption
FACTORS THAT AFFECTABSORPTION
  • BLOOD FLOW
  • PAIN
  • STRESS
  • HUNGER
  • FASTING
  • FOOD
  • ph
  • EXERCISE
  • ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION
first pass effect
FIRST PASS EFFECT

BIOAVAILABILITY

factors that affect distribution
FACTORS THAT AFFECTDISTRIBUTION
  • PROTEIN BINDING
  • BLOOD FLOW
  • BODY TISSUE AFFINITY
half life

HALF-LIFE

4 – 8 HRS  SHORT HALF-LIFE

24 HRS LONG HALF-LIFE

THE TIME IT TAKES FOR HALF OF THE DRUG CONCENTRATION TO BE ELIMINATED

STEADY STATEdrug intake = amount excreted……

therefore!!...........serum conc. = therapeutic effect

factors that affect excretion
FACTORS THAT AFFECTEXCRETION
  • RENAL FUNCTION ( GFR, Cr Cl)
  • LIVER FUNCTION
    • BILE, FECES, LUNGS, SALIVA, SWEAT, BREAST MILK
  • URINE ph
  • DOSAGE
pharmocodynamics
PHARMOCODYNAMICS
  • DOSE RESPONSE/MAXIMAL EFFICACY
  • ONSET, PEAK, DURATION OF ACTION
  • RECEPTOR THEORY
    • AGONIST/ANTAGONIST (STIMULATOR/INHIBITOR-BLOCKER ;MIMETIC/LYTIC)
    • SPECIFIC- NON/SELECTIVE-NON (moa)
  • CATEGORIES OF DRUG ACTION
    • STIMULATORS/DEPRESSOR,,REPLACEMENT, INHIBITION/KILLING/IRRITATION
  • THERAPEUTIC INDEX/RANGE
  • PEAK AND TROUGH
  • LOADING DOSE
  • SIDE EFFECTS
  • PHARMACOGENETICS
  • TACHYPHYLAXIS (TOLERANCE)
  • PLACEBO EFFECT (PSYCHOLOGIC BENEFIT)
slide37

Oral vaccine could help epilepsy and stroke patients

By Emma Reid, February 25, 2000People who suffer from epilepsy, stroke or other brain traumas often have very high levels of brain activity during an episode or an attack. This high level of activity can cause an unpleasant chain of events leading to brain cell death. Researchers from the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, PA have developed a way to reduce the 'high activity' response in rats using an important oral vaccine. The oral vaccine stimulates the production of antibodies which block an important receptor in the brain , preventing glutamate from binding to receptor sites (like on the lower cell in the image and sending messages along the chain.

slide40

Always remember to check the name (trade and generic), dosage form, strength, and indication (reason the drug is being prescribed) before giving it to a patient. An error may have been made before you received the order!

A complete list of more than 800 sound-alike trade names can be found on the

United States Pharmacopeia (USP).

slide41

John G is receiving an experimental drug (AK22) for the treatment of actinic keratosis, a skin lesion that, if untreated, will progress to a skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma. The drug is delivered in a cream applied to the lesions twice a day.

slide42

After 3 weeks, John’s lesions have fewer scales and are less red. Some have disappeared. The science of what AK22 does tothe body is called:

  • pharmacokinetics.
  • pharmacognosy.
  • pharmacodynamics.
  • toxicology.
drug interactions
DRUG INTERACTIONS

PHARMACOKINETIC

PHARMOCODYNAMIC