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Gerunds and Infinitives. Gerunds. 1. Como sujeito da oração : Running is a great sport. 2. Após certos verbos : She enjoys meeting people. She misses going to parties. Would you mind carrying my bags?. 3. Após preposições: They’re interested in dancing .

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gerunds
Gerunds

1. Como sujeitodaoração:

Running is a great sport.

2. Apóscertosverbos:

She enjoysmeeting people.

She missesgoing to parties.

Would you mindcarrying my bags?

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3. Após preposições:

They’re interested in

dancing.

Why do you insist ontelling the same old story?

He left the room withoutsaying a word.

They are good at

fighting.

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4. Após o verbo go – com atividades recreativas:

Does he always go

surfing in the summer?

They go

fishing on Sundays.

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5. Após certas expressões idiomáticas:

The test has started. It’s no use

asking your doubts now.

There was no point inwaiting, so we left.

Do you think it’s worth

taking a taxi?

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6. Em proibições curtas:

Don’t smoke here. =

Nosmoking here.

Don’t drink and drive. =

Nodrinking and driving.

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7. Usamos o gerund após o ‘S e adjetivo possessivo (formal), pronome oblíquo (informal)

Kátia insisted on Marcelo’splaying with us.

Kátia insisted on hisplaying with us.

Kátia insisted on himplaying with us.

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Infinitives

8. Apósnúmerosordinais&paraindicarfinalidade:

He was the first runner

to arrive.

I came to school to learn.

She works in orderto be able to travel a lot.

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9. Usamos o simple infinitive / bare infinitive (infinitivo sem o TO) após os verbos let, make e have.

She is making him

retype the report.

The teacher let me leave earlier.

My mother had me do the dishes.

Obs.: O verbo HELP pode ser seguido de infinitivo com ou sem o TO.

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Gerund & Infinitives

10. Alguns verbos podem ser seguidos de gerund ou infinitive, sem alteração de sentido.

Mother Teresa startedto live/living in the slums of Calcutta from 1948.

Though she faced many problems, Mother Teresa continuedto work/working for the poor.

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11. Alguns verbos podem ser seguidos degerund ou infinitive, PORÉM, com diferença de sentido.

She stoppedsmoking. = (Ela não fuma mais.)

She stoppedto smoke. = (Ela parou de fazer algo para fumar.)

He rememberedto turn off the TV. = (Ele se lembrou de desligar a TV.)

He rememberedturning off the TV. =

(Ele se lembrou de ter desligado a TV.)

summary table for to infinitive and gerund
To infinitive

1. Use as subject

Eg: To smoke is bad for you

2. To say why we do things (purpose)

Eg: I got up early to catch the 7am train.

3. After some verbs (eg: expect, afford, want, need, prepare, refuse, choose, fail, learn, promise, hesitate...etc)

Eg: I expect to pass the exams.

Gerund (-ing forms)

1. Use as subject (more common)

Eg: Smoking is bad for you.

2. After prepositions (on, in, before, for, without, after…etc.)

Eg: You can’t live without eating

Eg: Thank you for listening.

3. After some verbs (eg: dislike, enjoy, practise, mind, avoid, consider, discuss, finish, keep, miss, suggest, keep, can’t help…etc)

Eg: I’ll finish studying in June.

Summary table for to-infinitive and gerund
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4. After some adjectives and nouns.(adj=easy, happy, glad, nice, excited, ready, difficult, dangerous ...etc; noun= work, money to spend, something to drink, different ways to protect her.…etc)

Eg: She is ready to leave. (adj)

Eg: I am glad to see you. (adj)

Eg: I’ve got work to do. (n)

5. Some verbs can be followed by either gerund or to-infinitive

Eg: I love going to school/

I love to go to school

4. After phrasal verbs

Eg: I am not good at dancing.

Eg: I am not interested insinging.

Eg: John will give upsmoking.

5. eg: begin, continue, hate, love, start…etc.

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6. Used in general sense(eg: love, like, hate, prefer..etc)

Eg: I like to swim.

* Some words can use both to-infinitive and gerund with the same meaning. (eg: love, like, begin, start, intend, continue..etc)

* Some words can use both to-infinitive and gerund with different meaning. (Eg: remember, try..etc)

6. Used in particular situations

Eg: I don’t like swimming on cold days.

7. No + gerund

Eg: No money, no talking.

8. Stop + gerund.

Eg: Stop talking, stop writing, stop walking…etc.

exercises http perso wanadoo es autoenglish gr infing i htm
Exerciseshttp://perso.wanadoo.es/autoenglish/gr.infing.i.htm

1.  There'sabsolutely no point in ________ it now. It'sfartoo late. (to do)

DOING

2.  Betty refused ________ something more formal. (to wear)

TO WEAR

3.  Didyouremember ___________ allthelights? (to turn off)

TO TURN OFF

4.  Do youmind __________ thecatwhilewe'reaway? (to lookafter)

LOOKING AFTER

5.  She'snotused to __________ onSaturdays. (to work)

WORKING

6.  Blast! I forgot _________ themilk. (to buy)

TO BUY

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7.  Theyoffered ___________ me to theairport.(to take)

TO TAKE

8.  Oldcarscost a bomb to maintain. It'sworth __________ a newone.(to buy)

BUYING

9.Weprefer ___________ onFridaynights.(to stay in)

TO STAY / STAYING IN

10.Weused to ________ footballeveryFridayafterschool.(to play)

PLAY

11.  I mustavoid ________ there for a while. (to go)

GOING

12.  Shelikes _________ to thetheatre. (to go)

GOING/TO GO

13.Before ________ thehouse, I alwaysdoublecheckeverything. (to leave)

LEAVING

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14.  After ________ anexam, I normallygo a bit crazy.(to take)

TAKING

15.  I can't stand ________ allweek-end. (to stay in)

STAYING IN

16.  Look! I'mpretending ________ a dog. Woof! (to be)

TO BE

17.  Wouldyoulike ___________ tonight? (to go out)

TO GO OUT

18.Nobodywanted me __________ theguitar. (to play)

TO PLAY

19.  It started __________ .(to snow)

TO SNOW/ SNOWING

20.  What time havewearranged _________ ? (to meet)

TO MEET