Gerunds and Infinitives. Gerunds. 1. Como sujeito da oração : Running is a great sport. 2. Após certos verbos : She enjoys meeting people. She misses going to parties. Would you mind carrying my bags?. 3. Após preposições: They’re interested in dancing .
1. Como sujeitodaoração:
Running is a great sport.
She enjoysmeeting people.
She missesgoing to parties.
Would you mindcarrying my bags?
They’re interested in
Why do you insist ontelling the same old story?
He left the room withoutsaying a word.
They are good at
Does he always go
surfing in the summer?
fishing on Sundays.
The test has started. It’s no use
asking your doubts now.
There was no point inwaiting, so we left.
Do you think it’s worth
taking a taxi?
Don’t smoke here. =
Don’t drink and drive. =
Nodrinking and driving.
Kátia insisted on Marcelo’splaying with us.
Kátia insisted on hisplaying with us.
Kátia insisted on himplaying with us.
He was the first runner
I came to school to learn.
She works in orderto be able to travel a lot.
She is making him
retype the report.
The teacher let me leave earlier.
My mother had me do the dishes.
Obs.: O verbo HELP pode ser seguido de infinitivo com ou sem o TO.
10. Alguns verbos podem ser seguidos de gerund ou infinitive, sem alteração de sentido.
Mother Teresa startedto live/living in the slums of Calcutta from 1948.
Though she faced many problems, Mother Teresa continuedto work/working for the poor.
She stoppedsmoking. = (Ela não fuma mais.)
She stoppedto smoke. = (Ela parou de fazer algo para fumar.)
He rememberedto turn off the TV. = (Ele se lembrou de desligar a TV.)
He rememberedturning off the TV. =
(Ele se lembrou de ter desligado a TV.)
1. Use as subject
Eg: To smoke is bad for you
2. To say why we do things (purpose)
Eg: I got up early to catch the 7am train.
3. After some verbs (eg: expect, afford, want, need, prepare, refuse, choose, fail, learn, promise, hesitate...etc)
Eg: I expect to pass the exams.
Gerund (-ing forms)
1. Use as subject (more common)
Eg: Smoking is bad for you.
2. After prepositions (on, in, before, for, without, after…etc.)
Eg: You can’t live without eating
Eg: Thank you for listening.
3. After some verbs (eg: dislike, enjoy, practise, mind, avoid, consider, discuss, finish, keep, miss, suggest, keep, can’t help…etc)
Eg: I’ll finish studying in June.Summary table for to-infinitive and gerund
Eg: She is ready to leave. (adj)
Eg: I am glad to see you. (adj)
Eg: I’ve got work to do. (n)
5. Some verbs can be followed by either gerund or to-infinitive
Eg: I love going to school/
I love to go to school
4. After phrasal verbs
Eg: I am not good at dancing.
Eg: I am not interested insinging.
Eg: John will give upsmoking.
5. eg: begin, continue, hate, love, start…etc.
Eg: I like to swim.
* Some words can use both to-infinitive and gerund with the same meaning. (eg: love, like, begin, start, intend, continue..etc)
* Some words can use both to-infinitive and gerund with different meaning. (Eg: remember, try..etc)
6. Used in particular situations
Eg: I don’t like swimming on cold days.
7. No + gerund
Eg: No money, no talking.
8. Stop + gerund.
Eg: Stop talking, stop writing, stop walking…etc.
1. There'sabsolutely no point in ________ it now. It'sfartoo late. (to do)
2. Betty refused ________ something more formal. (to wear)
3. Didyouremember ___________ allthelights? (to turn off)
TO TURN OFF
4. Do youmind __________ thecatwhilewe'reaway? (to lookafter)
5. She'snotused to __________ onSaturdays. (to work)
6. Blast! I forgot _________ themilk. (to buy)
8. Oldcarscost a bomb to maintain. It'sworth __________ a newone.(to buy)
9.Weprefer ___________ onFridaynights.(to stay in)
TO STAY / STAYING IN
10.Weused to ________ footballeveryFridayafterschool.(to play)
11. I mustavoid ________ there for a while. (to go)
12. Shelikes _________ to thetheatre. (to go)
13.Before ________ thehouse, I alwaysdoublecheckeverything. (to leave)
15. I can't stand ________ allweek-end. (to stay in)
16. Look! I'mpretending ________ a dog. Woof! (to be)
17. Wouldyoulike ___________ tonight? (to go out)
TO GO OUT
18.Nobodywanted me __________ theguitar. (to play)
19. It started __________ .(to snow)
TO SNOW/ SNOWING
20. What time havewearranged _________ ? (to meet)