Gerunds and infinitives can function as:NOUNS(subjects, objects, subject complements)
To form gerunds, use the base form + ing • I enjoy watching American series • To form negative gerunds, use not + gerund Not speakingEnglish can be a problem in the show business world.
Verbs that take only Gerunds • Appreciate • Avoid • Delay • Deny • Discuss • Dislike • Enjoy • Excuse • Finish • Understand • Keep • Mention • Mind • Miss • Postpone • Quit • Recall • Recommend • Resent • Suggest Verb + ing
Gerunds used as object of the preposition I am thinking abouttaking the children to Mexico.
Common preposition combinations followed by gerunds • be excited about • complain about, • talk about, • think about, • worry about • believe in, • interested in, • succeed in • insist on • count on • concentrate on • apologize for, • blame for, • famous for • take care of • instead of • be accused of • keep from • prevent from • profit from • in addition to • look forward to • be used to Verb + ing
by + gerundYou get good grades by studying hard. go + gerundRecreational activities: camping, dancing, sightseeing, swimming, skiing, fishing, jogging,I willgo fishingwith you tomorrow.
Some expressions are used with gerunds be busy, can’t help, have fun, it’s no use, it’s not worth It’s no use telling him to behave! He doesn’t listen.
Summingup • Gerunds can be used as • Nouns • After some verbs (LIST) • After some expressions • After prepositions
To form infinitives useto + base form of the verbI want to dance To form negative infinitives useNot + infinitiveHe decided not to go to the party.
Verb + infinitives – agree, ask, appear, beg, decide, choose, expect, hope, intend, learn, need, offer, plan, , promise, seem, tend, wait, want, can afford, would like. Verb + sm + infinitive – cause, convince, force, invite, order, persuade, remind, tell, trust, warn, advise, encourage Verbs that take infinitives
Adjectives followed by infinitives afraid, amazed, anxious, ashamed, careful, delighted, eager, fortunate, glad, happy, lucky, pleased, ready, sad, sorry,
Infinitive of purpose In order to / so as to / to… I came here to help you.
Infinitive with too and enoughShe is too young to vote.They are old enough to vote.
Summingup • Infinitives can be used as • Subjects • After some verbs (LIST) • After adjectives • To show purpose
Some verbs can be followed by both gerund or infinitive with no change in meaning.begin, hate, like,start, love, prefer, continue Wouldlike + infinitive
I like cooking.I like to cook when I have some freetime .She started losing weight. She started to lose weight.
Some verbs although they can be used after both gerunds and infinitives have a difference in meaning. rememberforgetregretstoptry
He stopped smoking.He stopped to smoke. PAST She regretted having hurt his feelings.She regretted to hurt his feelings but she had to say the truth. FUTURE
Differentmeanings • Shetriedto loseweightbutshecouldn’t. • Whydon’tyoutryexercising more often?
Used to (past memories)Be used to / Get used to (habits) • Used to + infinitive • My granny used to tellme stories.
Be used to + gerundGet used to + gerund I am used to getting up early. I can’t get used to wearing glasses all the time
Sense-perception verbs:hear, listen tofeel, smell, seewatch, observe, noticeare followed by either a bare infinitive (without to) or –ing form with only a slight difference in meaning.
Verbs of perception:Infinitives: from start to finishGerunds: in progress She said she saw a man climbing up the fence. She said she saw the police arrive, park the car and enter the building.