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Bellwork Week 09. The ozone hole is a completely different phenomenon to global warming ! T here are links between them. In your bellwork please explain: “What are those links?”. Links between Global Warming and Climate Change. Summary:

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Bellwork Week 09

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    1. Bellwork Week 09 The ozone hole is a completely different phenomenon to global warming! There are links between them. In your bellwork please explain: “What are those links?”

    2. Links between Global Warming and Climate Change Summary: The ozone hole is caused by ozone depleting chemicals in the atmosphere, which have been produced by industry, for example CFCs. • One link is that CFCs are also 'greenhouse gasses'. Enhanced global warming is a probable consequence of increasing amounts of 'greenhouse gasses', such as carbon dioxide and methane, in the atmosphere. • Although the surface of the earth warms, higher up the atmosphere cools, thus increasing the area where polar stratospheric clouds can form. This makes a larger area susceptible to ozone depletion and provides another link between the two issues.

    3. Ozone

    4. Ozone LossCentral Questions & Key Concepts • Ozone depletion and global warming are two very different things! • How are human activities affecting the ozone layer? • What can humans do about changes in the ozone layer? • Movie • Take notes!

    5. Ozone • A form of oxygen in which three atoms of oxygen occur together. • Produced in photochemical reactions involving sunlight, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and diatomic oxygen. • Chemically active and has a short average lifetime in the atmosphere. • Forms a natural layer high in the atmosphere that protects us from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. • A pollutant when present in the lower atmosphere.

    6. Ultraviolet Radiation and Ozone • Ozone Shield: Stratospheric ozone layer that absorbs ultraviolet radiation Movie - Take notes!

    7. Measurement of Stratospheric Ozone • Dobson Unit (DU) • Commonly used to measure the concentration of ozone.

    8. Production of Ozone in the Stratosphere • photo dissociation of diatomic oxygen D. Ozone is produced C. single oxygen atom combines with O2 B. Two single oxygen atoms

    9. Average Antarctic Minimum Ozone Concentration (1990-2005)

    10. Why is There Seasonal Thinning of Ozone over the Anatarctic? • 1984- researchers discovered 40-50% of ozone in upper stratosphere over Antarctica was being destroyed • 1987- “smoking gun”- • CFC’s primarily cause of ozone thinning • Polar vortex- huge swirling mass of very cold air that is isolated from the rest of the atmosphere until the sun returns a month later

    11. Polar Stratospheric Clouds • Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) • Ozone destroying clouds that form in the stratosphere during the polar winter • Chlorine Nitrate (cl catalyzes ozone destruction)(ClONO2) • Nitric acid (HNO3) TAKE NOTES!

    12. Average Change in Concentration of Stratospheric Ozone (1970-2002) by Latitude • Ozone reduction varies most in the Antarctic • Highest concentrations of O3 are found here naturally • Concentrations at the equator are nearly constant. • Lowest concentrations are found at the equator

    13. Size of the Antarctic Ozone Hole The Ozone hole has, in general, been increasing in size over the last two decades. At times the Ozone hole has extended over 25 million square kilometers, an area one hundred times larger than the United Kingdom and equivalent to one sixth of the total world land mass. This graph above shows the minimum Ozone (measured in Dobson units) detected over the Antarctic. It shows that ozone levels have been decreasing over the last two decades.

    14. “...use of CFCs increases rapidly...” Ozone Depleting Chemicals • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) • Halons • Methyl bromide • Carbon tetrachloride • Methyl chloroform • Hydrogen chloride

    15. “Scientists discover a link between CFCsand ozone layer depletion.” Ozone Depletion and CFCs • Ozone depleted due to emission of CFCs • CFCs are stable and have a long residence time in the atmosphere • In stratosphere, release chlorine and enter into catalytic chain reaction- depletes ozone • More UV radiation reaches lower atmosphere

    16. “If the ozone layer depletes, more harmful UV-B radiation will reach the earth through the damaged ozone layer.” Why Should We Be Worried about Ozone Depletion? Reasons for Concern • Less Ozone Causes: • Immune system suppression • Increase in acid deposition • Lower crop yields and decline in productivity

    17. “More UV-B radiation means more skin cancers,more diseases and eye cataracts, less yield from plants, less productivity from oceans, damage to plastics...” Why Should We Be Worried…Life in the Ultraviolet Zone • Less Ozone Also Causes: • increased incidence and severity of sunburn • more cataracts • more skin cancer • More About Skin Cancer & Cataracts • increasing in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina & Chile because the ozone layer is thin several months a year in those places

    18. Management Issues • Key issue is whether ozone depletion is natural or human-induced • Montreal Protocol • Collection and Reuse of CFCs • Substitutes for CFCs • HFCs and HCFCs • Short-Term Adaptation to Ozone Depletion

    19. Solutions: Protecting the Ozone Layer • Montreal Protocol • Treaty created in 1987 by 36 nations • Says- cut emissions of CFC’s into the atmosphere by about 35% between 1989 & 2000 • Met 3 more times • Met in 1997 in Montreal • Adopted a protocol accelerating the phase out of key ozone depleting chemicals • CFC production fell by 85% • Other Legislation/Meetings (see handout)

    20. Solutions: Protecting the Ozone Layer • Stop producing all ozone depleting substances • CFC substitutes • HCFC’s- contain fewer chlorine atoms per molecule than CFC’s • HFC’s- contain Fluorine but no chlorine • HC’s- hydrocarbons - useful as coolants & insulating foam in refrigerators

    21. Solutions: Protecting the Ozone Layer • Technofixes • Physicist Alfred Wong- each year wants to launch blimps 20-30 football-fields long. • Blimps are radio-controlled and would contain electrical wires that would inject negatively charged electrons to the stratosphere when exposed to high voltages (see article) • Others suggest using lasers to blast CFC’s out/ but no one knows how it will affect climate, birds, or planes

    22. Will the International Treaty to Slow Ozone Depletion Work? • still a black-market of CFC’s • some countries cheating • prevention is the best way to deal with global environmental problems

    23. "Do not release CFCs - recycle them!” “Demand ozone friendly products.” What Can You Do?

    24. Activity • Please sit in groups of FIVE with people who did NOT do your chemical. • Please describe the following ozone depleting chemicals with your table. Halons Methyl bromide Carbon tetrachloride Methyl chloroform Hydrogen chloride