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China in the 20 th Century. China is dominated by foreign powers in the 19th Century. The Opium War (1839-1842) allows the British to force themselves into China. Soon all powers develop “Spheres of Influence” and the weakened Chinese government can do nothing to stop it.

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China in the 20 th century

China in the 20th Century


China is dominated by foreign powers in the 19th century
China is dominated by foreign powers in the 19th Century

  • The Opium War (1839-1842) allows the British to force themselves into China. Soon all powers develop “Spheres of Influence” and the weakened Chinese government can do nothing to stop it.

  • Extraterritoriality: Foreigners living in China were not subject to Chinese laws.


China in the 20 th century

  • The turn of the century, thanks to the United States supporting an “Open-Door Policy,” allowed China to remain in control of their lands by keeping the Western powers satisfied that they would not have to conquer Chinese territory to have a beneficial economic status there.


China did not have political stability
China did not have political stability! supporting an

  • The Chinese Manchu dynasty come to an end in 1911. “The Era of Civil War”

  • Many different groups and forces within China tried to gain control of the country. The Nationalists were led by Sun Yat-sen (died in 1925) and, later military hero, Chiang Kai-shek (sometimes called Jiang Jieshi) and these men worked to unify the country.


China in the 20 th century

  • Chiang Kai-shek focused his reforms on the rising Urban Middle Class and sought to make his improvements with their support. Chiang Kai-shek said, “The Japanese are a disease of the skin, but Communists are a disease of the heart.”

  • Chiang led an attack against the Communists in Shanghai (South China) in 1927, killed thousands, and forced the Communist leaders into hiding.


The long march
The Long March Middle Class and sought to make his improvements with their support. Chiang Kai-shek said, “The Japanese are a disease of the skin, but Communists are a disease of the heart.”

  • The Communist fled and tried to establish control there. They were again attacked by Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist forces and surrounded. Mao and the Communists broke through the lines and began the Long March to a base in Northwest China.


The long march1
The Middle Class and sought to make his improvements with their support. Chiang Kai-shek said, “The Japanese are a disease of the skin, but Communists are a disease of the heart.”Long March

  • The Long March took the communist People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on a 6000 mile journey and of the 90,000 that started only 9,000 reached the safety of the base. With these 9,000, Mao begins to rebuild the Communist movement in China. Mao believes that a revolution in China must come from the peasants that represent 80% of the Chinese population.


Sino japanese war and wwii
Sino-Japanese War and WWII Middle Class and sought to make his improvements with their support. Chiang Kai-shek said, “The Japanese are a disease of the skin, but Communists are a disease of the heart.”

  • In the 1930s the Japanese attacked China and both the Nationalists and Communists fought against them. But by the end of the war, two separate governments existed in China: the Nationalist under Chiang Kai-shek (and supported by the USA) in South and Central China, and the Communist government led by Mao in the North and West and supported by the Soviet Union.


Chang and the nationalists flee to taiwan
Chang and the Nationalists Flee to Taiwan Middle Class and sought to make his improvements with their support. Chiang Kai-shek said, “The Japanese are a disease of the skin, but Communists are a disease of the heart.”

  • After the war, the Communists and Nationalists fought for control of China and in 1949 Chiang and the remainder of the Nationalists fled to Taiwan and the Communists take over the government!

  • Taiwan continues to call themselves the Republic of China, but has been recognized by few governments who do not wish to offend 1/5 of the world’s population.


The great leap forward
The Great Leap Forward Middle Class and sought to make his improvements with their support. Chiang Kai-shek said, “The Japanese are a disease of the skin, but Communists are a disease of the heart.”

  • The Great Leap Forward took place in 1958. The Great Leap Forward was Mao’s attempt to modernize China’s economy so that by 1988 China would have an economy that rivaled America.


The red guard
The Red Guard Middle Class and sought to make his improvements with their support. Chiang Kai-shek said, “The Japanese are a disease of the skin, but Communists are a disease of the heart.”

  • During the Cultural Revolution, the Red Guards traveled throughout China, going to schools, universities, and institutions, spreading the teachings of Mao. Some were criticized for using violence against people who were believed to be taking things back to capitalism.

  • The role of Red Guard was mainly to attack the "Four Olds" of society, that is what is believed to be old ideas, cultures, manners, and customs of China at the time.


Cultural revolution
Cultural Revolution Middle Class and sought to make his improvements with their support. Chiang Kai-shek said, “The Japanese are a disease of the skin, but Communists are a disease of the heart.”

  • The Cultural Revolution was launched by Chinese Communist Party chairman Mao Zedong during his last decade in power (1966-76) to renew the spirit of the Chinese revolution.

  • He feared that China would develop along the lines of the Soviet model and was concerned about his own place in history.

  • Mao threw China's cities into turmoil in a monumental effort to reverse the historic processes underway.


Four goals for the cultural revolution
Four Goals for the Cultural Middle Class and sought to make his improvements with their support. Chiang Kai-shek said, “The Japanese are a disease of the skin, but Communists are a disease of the heart.”Revolution

  • To replace his designated successors with leaders more faithful to his current thinking

  • To rectify the Chinese Communist Party

  • To provide China's youth with a revolutionary experience

  • To achieve some specific policy changes so as to make the educational, health care, and cultural systems less elitist


The four modernizations under deng xiaoping
The Four Modernizations under Deng Xiaoping Middle Class and sought to make his improvements with their support. Chiang Kai-shek said, “The Japanese are a disease of the skin, but Communists are a disease of the heart.”

  • The Four Modernizations were designed to make China a great economic power by the early 21st century. These reforms essentially stressed economic self-reliance.

  • The People's Republic of China decided to accelerate the modernization process by stepping up the volume of foreign trade by opening up its markets, especially the purchase of machinery from Japan and the West.


Results of the four modernizations
Results of the Four Modernizations Middle Class and sought to make his improvements with their support. Chiang Kai-shek said, “The Japanese are a disease of the skin, but Communists are a disease of the heart.”

  • By participating in such export-led growth, China was able to speed up its economic development through foreign investment, a more open market, access to advanced technologies, and management experience.


Tiananmen square protest
Tiananmen Square Protest Middle Class and sought to make his improvements with their support. Chiang Kai-shek said, “The Japanese are a disease of the skin, but Communists are a disease of the heart.”

  • A series of demonstrations led by labor activists, students, and intellectuals in the People's Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, 1989. While the protests lacked a unified cause or leadership, participants were generally against the authoritarianism and economic policies of the ruling Chinese Communist Party and voiced calls for democratic reform within the structure of the government.

  • In Beijing, the resulting military crackdown on the protesters by the PRC government left many civilians dead or injured.


China us trade relations
China US Trade Relations Middle Class and sought to make his improvements with their support. Chiang Kai-shek said, “The Japanese are a disease of the skin, but Communists are a disease of the heart.”