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Biogeochemical processes in seasonally snow covered systems Snow Distribution Vegetation Water Source Hydrochemistry Biosphere-Atmosphere Gas Exchange. Snow Distribution Vegetation communities are strongly linked to patterns of snow accumulation and melt by their influence on mass,

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Biogeochemical processes in seasonally snow covered systems

Snow Distribution

Vegetation Water Source

Hydrochemistry

Biosphere-Atmosphere Gas Exchange

slide2

Snow Distribution

Vegetation communities are strongly

linked to patterns of snow accumulation

and melt by their influence on mass,

chemical and energy exchanges, and by

their sensitivity to snow thermal insulation

and spring time inputs of meltwater,

nutrients and latent heat.

slide3

Snow Distribution

1) Interception

slide5

Snow Distribution – Vegetation Effects

3) Wind Redistribution/ Energy Balance

slide6

Vegetation Water Source

Biomass Production

Agriculture

Protected Areas

Parks and Wilderness

Habitat

slide8

Snow Biogeochemistry; Hydrochemistry

Dissolved Organic Matter

Inorganic Nitrogen

slide10

160

120

DEEP

Snow Depth (cm)

80

40

SHALLOW

0

0

C)

o

DEEP

-4

Soil Temperature (

SHALLOW

-8

-12

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JAN

slide11

Relationship between temperature and soil heterotrophic activity

600

400

CO2 Flux (mg C/m2/d)

200

0

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

SoilTemperature

slide12

8

Snowmelt

Began

7

6

5

-2

4

microbial biomass

Grams N m

3

2

1

0

0

50

100

150

Julian Day

slide13

8

Snowmelt

Began

7

6

5

microbial N

-2

4

Grams N m

3

2

soil inorganic N

1

0

0

50

100

150

Julian Day

slide14

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

y = -0.0106x + 1.3327

2

R

= 0.9919

Nitrate Leachate (g N/m2)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Mean Daily CO2 Flux (mg C/m2)

slide15

Conceptual Model of How Snow Cover Controls Over-winter

Heterotrophic Activity

Absence of

Snow Cover

Freeze-Thaw

Frozen Soil

Freeze-Thaw

LimitsPrimary

Cell Lysis

Limits

Decreases Carbon

Production

Increases

Activity

Substrate

Carbon

Substrate

Over-winter Heterotrophic Activity

Snow Cover Duration

slide16

1.4

1.2

Forest Sites

1

y = -0.3725Ln(x) + 2.1949

2

R

= 0.9232

0.8

Nitrate Leachate (g N/m2/yr)

0.6

Meadow Sites

0.4

y = -0.5381Ln(x) + 2.8147

2

R

= 0.9171

0.2

0

0

100

200

300

400

500

CO2 Flux (mg C/m2/d)

slide17

2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

N retention (kg/ha)

1

y = 0.0245x - 0.2965

2

R

= 0.7627

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

Winter precip (cm)

slide18

Discharge (Montezuma) and DOC (DC5)

1980 - 1996

25

7

6

20

5

15

4

DOC (ppm)

Discharge (m3/sec)

3

10

2

5

1

0

0

1984

1986

1993

1994

1995

1996

1985

1980

1981

1982

Water Year

slide19

Heterotrophic activity vs. DOC export

35

30

)

-2

25

y = 0.0637x + 4.2667

20

DOC Leachate (g C m

R

2

= 0.9065

15

10

5

100.0

150.0

200.0

250.0

300.0

350.0

400.0

450.0

-2

-1

Flux (mg C m

d

Mean Daily CO

)

2

slide20

y = 0.3994x + 0.8987

5

2

= 0.836

R

4.5

4

3.5

3

DOC Concentration (ppm)

y = 0.3697x - 0.3526

2.5

2

R

= 0.6544

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Discharge (m3/sec)

slide22

Vegetation communities are strongly linked to patterns of snow

accumulation and melt by their influence on mass, chemical and energy exchanges, and by their sensitivity to snow thermal insulation

and spring time inputs of meltwater, nutrients and latent heat.

Many snow models and parameterisations presume stationary plant

communities as part of their regional calibrations.

It is now felt that the complex cumulative impacts of a changing

environment have created a global need for focused studies of snow-vegetation interactions at several scales: plant, plant community, landscape, biome and global.

slide23

Discharge (Montezuma) and DOC (SN2)

1980 - 1996

25

7

6

20

5

15

4

Dicharge (m3/sec)

DOC (ppm)

3

10

2

5

1

0

0

1993

1994

1995

1996

1986

1985

1981

1984

1982

1980

Water Year

slide25

30

y = 1.0342x - 32.142

2

R

= 0.9948

25

grams)

20

6

15

DOC Export (10

y = 0.1265x - 0.4547

10

2

R

= 0.7326

5

0

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Water yield (cm)