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The psychology of design: Models. CS774 Human-Computer Interaction Spring 2004. Modeling an HCI task. How did the OJ get on the cereal? Intention: Pour milk Action: Get milk, take to table, pour Error: “Get milk” action transposed into “Get carton” How did the OJ get on the floor?

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the psychology of design models

The psychology of design: Models

CS774 Human-Computer Interaction

Spring 2004

modeling an hci task
Modeling an HCI task
  • How did the OJ get on the cereal?
    • Intention: Pour milk
    • Action: Get milk, take to table, pour
    • Error: “Get milk” action transposed into “Get carton”
  • How did the OJ get on the floor?
    • Action: “Take to table” failed because carton slipped
  • Analysis
    • One error is mental, one physical
    • Analysis of HCI tasks through models helps pinpoint flaws
    • Shows us what to look at and for when watching users

CS774 HCI

models of hci
Models of HCI
  • Explanatory models - what, why, how
    • Norman’s seven stages of action
    • Foley and van Dam’s four level approach
    • Shneiderman’s Object-Action Interface (OAI) model
    • Keiras and Meyer’s EPIC cognitive model
  • Predictive models - controlled variables, statistics
    • GOMS - Goals, Operators, Methods and Selection rules
    • KLM - Keyboard-Level Model (a variation of GOMS)

CS774 HCI

norman s action model
Norman’s action model
  • To carry out a task
  • Form a goal
  • Execute the goal
  • Evaluate the result
  • HCI use as cycle ofdo something, check

CS774 HCI

gulf of execution
Gulf of Execution
  • How do I … ?
    • Close the Favorite tab
    • Open the door
    • Set the printer
    • Twist this cap off
  • Gap between intention and action

CS774 HCI

gulf of evaluation
Gulf of Evaluation
  • What happened?
    • Where was my file saved?
    • Is the air conditioner on?
    • Is the door locked?
    • Did you ever call a wrong number not picked up?
  • Gap between perception and interpretation

CS774 HCI

command line interfaces
Command line interfaces
  • No cue as to what to do
  • Gulf of Execution
  • rm *
  • Gulf of Evaluation

CS774 HCI

examples
Examples?
  • Can we choose the reason? UI Hall of Shame
    • The Wrong Control; Error Messages
  • Norman’s examples - door, fan, phone
  • Your experience?
  • Caveat
    • Modeling a cycle
    • One cycle’s evaluation feeds into next cycle’s execution
    • Line between evaluation and execution is fine
    • Ie, where did I save that file?

CS774 HCI

refining the model execution
Refining the model -execution
  • Execution
    • Forming the intention What actions possible?
    • Picking the action What causes the action?
    • Executing action Hit that @#$!% button
  • Foley and van Dam
    • Conceptual level Goal
    • Semantic level Intention
    • Syntactic level Action sequence
    • Lexical level Action components

CS774 HCI

refining the model evaluation
Refining the model - evaluation
  • Evaluation
    • Perceiving the world What do I see?
    • Interpreting the world What does it mean?
    • Evaluating the world Did I succeed?
  • Foley and van Dam
    • Conceptual level Goal
    • Semantic level Intention
    • Syntactic level Action sequence
    • Lexical level Action components

CS774 HCI

the user s mental model
The user’s mental model
  • The mental model cues the user on actions/results
  • The model can work even if
    • Rough, naïve, incomplete, wrong
    • as long as mapping is close

CS774 HCI

what s in a model ooh ahh
What’s in a model? Ooh Ahh
  • Shneiderman’s Object-Action- Interface model
    • Objects - things we manipulate
    • Actions - things we do to objects
  • System is composed of objects with states
  • Decompose task into Objects+Actions
    • Natural connection with OOP

CS774 HCI

putting it together
Putting it together
  • Action model
  • Classifies anddecomposesactions
  • Goals, intentions,actions,sequences

CS774 HCI

putting it together1
Putting it together
  • Conceptual model
  • Emphasizesthe mapping between the user and the device
  • Mapping levelsSemantics, Syntax, Lexemes

CS774 HCI

putting it together2
Putting it together
  • OAI model
  • Describes what goes into the system state

CS774 HCI

examples again
Examples Again?
  • Can we choose the reason? UI Hall of Shame
    • Misplaced metaphors; Globalization
  • Is the error best understood through …
    • The action sequence?
    • The conceptual level?
    • The specific objects and actions?
  • Watching the user
    • Look for goals, intentions, mental models, understandings of action sequences, etc.

CS774 HCI

end of class review
End of class review
  • What we covered:
    • Norman’s Seven Stages of Action model
    • The two Gulfs - execution and evaluation
    • Foley and van Dam’s Four Level model
    • Shneiderman’s OAI model
    • A unified approach - tying them together

CS774 HCI