Psychology of Addiction (The models). The disease model. Neurotransmitters The chemical that moves between nerve cells to transmit messages. If the message is blocked or replaced there will be a change to the physiological system and this in turn will effect mood behaviour and cognition. .
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directly stimulate those receptors.
Thinking point: At this point think about the role of dopamine in
relation to addiction e.g. what about gambling/gaming...could
you describe how dopamine can be used as a viable theory to
explain these addictions?
There is no single addiction Gene.
Scientists will never find just one single addiction gene.
Susceptibility to addiction is the result of many interacting genes
Researchers construct pedigrees of large families with addiction as a first step to understanding the disease.
A pedigree can reveal whether or not a trait has a genetic component. That is, whether or not it is passed down from parent to child by way of genesDr Glen Hanson suggests:
Using pedigree data, researchers can begin to hunt down genes.
They begin by comparing DNA sequences of individuals who have the disease
with those who do not. They can then narrow down the possibilities to identify a
small number of so-called "candidate genes" for addiction.
The reason, of course, is that identical twins share exactly the same genes,
those tiny units of hereditary material (DNA) that carry instructions for forming
all the cells in the body and directing their activity.
Things that make you go hmm??
You should at this point be critically analysing the findings by thinking…..
Could it be that sons model themselves more after their fathers? .
Or is there a sex-linked genetic mechanism at play that is contributing to this phenomenon?
How much of this phenomenon has its basis in genetics.
Major influence on the decision was environmental rather than genetic (Hans et al 1999)
2. Link between personality & addictive behaviour.
300 MZ & 300 DZ looked at relationship between alcohol use & personality.
Connection between genetics & anti social personality characteristics & between personality changes & alcoholism (Jang et al 2000)Further evidence…
3. Comings et al (1996) also found similar
findings in the investigation looking into behavioural addictions such as gambling
Usual rules apply!
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Plug ‘em in + Rat + Shock = Pleasure. = A type of reinforcement...there is our tedious link!!
Helps to account for Vulnerabilities & susceptibilities' and also provides information on why some may relapse more than others.
Don't forget other
evaluative points too!
Method, Ethics, AID,
Overestimate the extent to which they can predict or influence the outcomes. This also leads to a under estimation of how much has been lost/won.
See Griffiths (1994) Gamblers irrational cognitive biases.
Skill perception varies across individuals Cannot establish cause & effect because skill is not consistent among gamblers or irrational.
Experiential factors play a role too. Many gamblers on automatic pilot..suggesting cognitive processes did not play major role in maintenance of behaviour.
Cognitive explanations may be limited to specific addictions May have less of an effect in chemical addicitions such as Heroin but better in understanding gambling.