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Aerobic Metabolism. Summary of Anaerobic Glycolysis. Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 P i. 2 Lactate + 2 ATP + 2 H 2 O + 2 H +. Energetics of Fermentation. Glucose ——> 2 Lactate Glucose + 6 O 2 ——> 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O. ∆G o’ = -200 kJ/mol ∆G o’ = -2866 kJ/mol.

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Summary of anaerobic glycolysis
Summary of Anaerobic Glycolysis

Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 Pi

2 Lactate + 2 ATP + 2 H2O + 2 H+


Energetics of fermentation
Energetics of Fermentation

Glucose ——> 2 Lactate

Glucose + 6 O2 ——> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O

∆Go’ = -200 kJ/mol

∆Go’ = -2866 kJ/mol

Most of the energy of glucose is still

available following glycolysis!


Carbon atom oxidation
Carbon Atom Oxidation

CH2 —> CH2OH —> C=O —> COOH —> CO2

Lactate

Glucose



Oxidation reduction reactions electron transfer
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions:Electron Transfer

Substrate —> NAD+ or FAD —> Electron Carriers —> O2

Electron Transport

Oxidative Phosphorylation


Citric acid cycle
Citric Acid Cycle

Figure 17-2


Electron transport oxidative phosphorylation
Electron TransportOxidative Phosphorylation


Electron transport oxidative phosphorylation1
Electron TransportOxidative Phosphorylation


Summary of citric acid cycle
Summary of Citric Acid Cycle

Acetyl-CoA + 3 NAD+ + FAD + GDP + Pi

2 CO2 + 3 NADH + 3H+ + FADH2 + GTP + CoA-SH


Pyruvate dehydrogenase synthesis of acetyl coa

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase: Synthesis of Acetyl-CoA


Acetyl coa
Acetyl-CoA

Thioester


Sources of acetyl coa
Sources of Acetyl-CoA

  • Carbohydrates (sugars via glycolysis)

  • Fats (fatty acids)

  • Proteins (amino acids)


Pyruvate dehydrogenase formation of acetyl scoa
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase(Formation of Acetyl-SCoA)

Oxidative Decarboxylation


Pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase(Multienzyme Complex)

  • E1: Pyruvate Dehydrogenase or Pyruvate Decarboxylase

  • E2: Dihydrolipoyl Transacetylase

  • E3: Dihydrolipoyl Dehydrogenase


Multienzyme complexes
Multienzyme Complexes

  • Enhanced reaction rates

  • Channeling of reaction intermediates

  • Coordinate regulation


Electron micrograph of e coli pyruvate dehydrogenase
Electron Micrograph of E. coliPyruvate Dehydrogenase

Figure 17-3a


Organization of e coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
Organization of E. coliPyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex


Pyruvate dehydrogenase mammalian enzyme
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase(Mammalian Enzyme)

  • E1, E2, and E3

  • E3 binding protein

  • Kinase (regulation)

  • Phosphatase (regulation)


Coenzymes and prosthetic groups of pyruvate dehydrogenase
Coenzymes and Prosthetic Groups of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

Table 17-1





Reduction of lipoamide
Reduction of Lipoamide

E2

E2

Figure 17-7



Aerobic metabolism
NAD+




Pyruvate dehydrogenase formation of acetyl scoa1
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase(Formation of Acetyl-SCoA)

Oxidative Decarboxylation


Overall reaction of pyruvate dehydrogenase
Overall Reaction ofPyruvate Dehydrogenase



Mechanism of pyruvate dehydrogenase decarboxylation of pyruvate
Mechanism of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase(Decarboxylation of Pyruvate)

Same mechanism as Pyruvate Decarboxylase



Aerobic metabolism

Remainder

of Reaction



Mechanism of pyruvate dehydrogenase hydroxyethyl group transfer
Mechanism of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase(Hydroxyethyl Group Transfer)



Mechanism of hydroxyethyl group transfer
Mechanismof Hydroxyethyl Group Transfer

Page 574



Mechanism of pyruvate dehydrogenase transesterification
Mechanism of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase(Transesterification)




Mechanism of pyruvate dehydrogenase reoxidation of dihydrolipoamide
Mechanism of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase(Reoxidation of Dihydrolipoamide)


Mechanism of pyruvate dehydrogenase oxidation of e 3 fadh 2
Mechanism of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase(Oxidation of E3–FADH2)

E3–FADH2 + NAD+ ——> E3–FAD + NADH + H+



Mechanism of oxidation of e 3 fadh 2
Mechanism of Oxidation of E3–FADH2

Short Lived

Page 574



Organization of e coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex1
Organization of E. coliPyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex


Pyruvate dehydrogenase formation of acetyl scoa2
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase(Formation of Acetyl-SCoA)

Oxidative Decarboxylation


Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase
Regulation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

  • Product Inhibition (competitive)

    • NADH

    • Acetyl-SCoA

  • Phosphorylation/Dephosphorylation

    • PDH Kinase: inactivation

    • PDH Phosphatase: activation


Regulation of pdh kinase inactivates pdh by phosphorylation
Regulation of PDH Kinase(Inactivates PDH by phosphorylation)

  • Activators of PDH Kinase

    • NADH

    • Acetyl-SCoA

  • Inhibitors of PDH Kinase

    • Pyruvate

    • ADP

    • Ca2+ (high Mg2+)

    • K+


Regulation of pdh phosphatase activates pdh by dephosphorylation
Regulation of PDH Phosphatase(Activates PDH by Dephosphorylation)

  • Activators of PDH Pase

    • Insulin

    • Mg2+

    • Ca2+