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OUTLINE 6 VI. Morphogenesis A. General features of gastrulation B. Cell movement 1. extension and contraction 2. adhesion C. Gastrulation in the sea urchin D. Gastrulation in the frog E. Three layers of cells 1. ectoderm 2. mesoderm 3. endoderm F. Neurulation.

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slide1

OUTLINE 6

VI. Morphogenesis

A. General features of gastrulation

B. Cell movement

1. extension and contraction

2. adhesion

C. Gastrulation in the sea urchin

D. Gastrulation in the frog

E. Three layers of cells

1. ectoderm

2. mesoderm

3. endoderm

F. Neurulation

slide2

animal pole

vegetal pole

slide4

Echinoderms

Chordates

Annelids

Arthropods

Mollusks

Protostomes

Deuterostomes

Acoelomates

TIME

slide7

EGG

MORULA

slide11

Fig 47.9

Animal pole

Blastocoel

Vegetal pole

Start of invagination

(blastopore)

slide12

Fig 47.9

Archenteron

slide13

Fig 47.9

Archenteron

Mouth

Digestive tract

Anus

slide15

Fig 47.9

Archenteron

endoderm

ectoderm

mesoderm

slide19

Fig 47.8

FROG

BLASTULA

slide21

Frog blastula

blastocoel

Dorsal lip.

The invagination for gastrulation starts here

slide28

Scanning

Election

Micrographs

slide30

Fig. 47.11

Neurulation in the frog

slide31

OUTLINE 7

VII. Mechanisms of Animal Development

A. Cytoplasmic determinants

1. axes of symmetry in amphibians

2. bicoid gene in Drosophila

B. Cell communication

1. Holtfreter’s work

2. mechanisms of cell recognition

3. induction

C. Morphogens and pattern formation (chick limb bud)

D. Hormones (in amphibian development)

1. pattern of metamorphosis

2. role of thyroxin

3. evidence

slide32

ectoderm

mesoderm

endoderm

1. dissociation

3. resegregation

2. reaggregation

Holtfretter 1955

slide36

Tadpole

Aquatic

Gills

Herbivorous

Swimming

Frog

Terrestrial

Lungs

Carnivorous

Jumping

metamorphosis

slide41

Fig. 21.23

Development in the fly

slide42

Fig. 21.24

Determination of anterior -

posterior axis in the fly

slide46

Bigger is better!

Pond dries,

metamorphosis

or death

larger

Size of

tadpole

smaller

Time

slide49

Stage 36

C

O

Stage 27

C

20 mm

20 mm

O

Stage 42

C

O

Omnivore

Carnivore

slide52

larger

Size of

tadpole

smaller

Time

Pond dries,

metamorphosis

slide53

Natural and experimental variation in hormone levels can change the timing of development and metamorphosis: this provides an avenue for evolutionary innovation

slide55

Amphioxus

Larva

Heterochrony

Neoteny

Paedomorphosis

Adult

slide58

higher

Concentration

of toxins in

water

lower

Lake Woodruff

Lake Apopka

slide59

larger

Alligator

penis

size

smaller

Lake Woodruff

Lake Apopka

slide60

larger

Alligator

penis

size

smaller

lower

higher

Concentration of toxins in water

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