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Understanding HIV and AIDS. Defining Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

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defining human immunodeficiency virus hiv
Defining Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
  • A virus that attacks the bodies immune system. HIV is attracted to white blood cells called CD4s. It invades the WBC and reproduces millions of viral strands within a mere day. Then the WBC dies leaving the body without a form of defense to fight off other viruses, infections, bacteria, cancers, etc.
defining acquired immunodeficiency syndrome aids
Defining Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
  • AIDS is caused by HIV. It is the last stage of the HIV infection.
  • When the immune system becomes so weak that it can no longer defend the body against any pathogen whether normal intestinal bacteria or external bacteria, viruses, cancer, parasites, etc. These are called opportunistic infections which do not make healthy people sick.
facts
FACTS:
  • AIDS was first reported in the United States in 1981 and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. More than 830,000 cases of AIDS have been reported in the U.S. since 1981. As many as 950,000 Americans may be infected with HIV, 25% of whom are unaware of their infection. The epidemic is growing rapidly among minority populations and is the leading killer in African-American males age 25-44.
how is hiv transmitted
How is HIV Transmitted?
  • Unprotected sexual relationships with an infected partner.
  • Contact with infected blood.
  • Needle sharing/Needle sticks
  • Pregnancy/birth/breast milk transmission from mother to baby.
  • Blood/Blood Component transfusions prior to 1985.
unprotected sexual contact with an infected partner
Unprotected Sexual Contactwith an Infected Partner!
  • The virus can enter the body through the lining of the vagina, female external genitalia, penis, rectum or mouth during sex.
contact with infected blood
Contact with Infected Blood
  • This includes all scenarios relating to the cross contamination of blood.

Example: Touching another person’s blood without gloves and having open sore on your hand.

needle sharing needle sticks
Needle Sharing & Needle Sticks
  • Frequently spread among injection drug users by sharing of needles or syringes contaminated with very small quantities of blood from someone infected with HIV.
  • Rarely spread by accidental sticks with contaminated needles or other medical instruments.
pregnancy birth breast milk transmission from mother to baby
Pregnancy/Birth/Breast Milk Transmission from Mother to Baby.

Approximately 25%-33% of all untreated pregnant women infected with HIV will pass the infection to their babies.

If the mother is treated with AZT (antiretroviral drug for HIV) and deliver Cesarean section, the chances of the baby being infected can be reduced to a rate of 1%. WOW!!

blood blood components transfusions prior to 1985
Blood/Blood Components Transfusions prior to 1985
  • Before 1985 blood was not screened for evidence of HIV infection.
  • Before heat treating techniques to destroy HIV in blood products were introduced.
  • EXTREMELY SMALL RISK NOW due to screening and heat treatment. The tests are more than 99% accurate now(ARC, 1998).
summary of hiv transmission
Summary ofHIV Transmission?
  • Blood
  • Sexual Contact
  • Birth
fluids that are not currently known to spread hiv unless they contain visible blood
Fluids that are not currently known to spread HIV, UNLESS THEY CONTAIN VISIBLE BLOOD!
  • Feces
  • Nasal Secretions
  • Saliva
  • Sweat
  • Tears
  • Urine
  • Vomit
you can not get hiv from
YOU CAN NOT GET HIV FROM:
  • Coughing, sneezing or spitting.
  • Eating foods prepared or served by someone else.
  • Drinking fountains.
  • Toilets or showers.
  • Chairs, desks, pencils or paper.
  • Computers and other classroom equipment.
  • Playground equipment and swimming pools
  • Mosquitoes or other insects
  • Social kisses or hugs.
hiv can infect anyone who practices risky behaviors
HIV CAN INFECT ANYONE WHO PRACTICES RISKY BEHAVIORS!!
  • Sharing drug needles or syringes.
  • Having sexual contact with an infected person person without using a CONDOM.
  • Having sexual contact with someone whose HIV status is unknown (25% do not know they are infected).
symptoms of hiv
SYMPTOMS OF HIV
  • Many people do not have any symptoms when they first become infected with HIV.
  • Some do have flu-like illness within a month or two after exposure to the virus.
symptoms of hiv flu like illness
SYMPTOMS OF HIV: FLU-LIKE ILLNESS
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Tiredness
  • Enlarged lymph glands (glands in the immune system easily felt in the neck and groin)
length of symptoms
LENGTH OF SYMPTOMS
  • Usually the symptoms will disappear within a week to a month and are mistakes for those of a viral infection.
  • More persistent or severe symptoms may not appear for 10 years.
other symptoms experienced months to years before the onset of aids
Other Symptoms Experienced Months to Years Before the Onset of AIDS.
  • Lack of energy
  • Weight loss
  • Frequent fever and sweats
  • Persistent or frequent yeast infections (oral or vaginal)
  • Persistent skin rashes or flaky skin
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease in women that is not responding to treatment
  • Short-term memory loss
when does a person have aids
When does a person have AIDS?
  • A term that applies to the most advanced form of HIV infection.
  • CDC defines this as being HIV+ and have a white blood cell (CD4 + T cells) of 200 or less per cubic millimeter of blood (Healthy adults have approximately 1,000 or more).
  • The HIV + person will also have one of the 26 clinical conditions or opportunistic infections that affect people with advanced HIV infection.
children with aids
Children with AIDS
  • Children with AIDS get the same symptoms as adults with additional severe forms of bacterial infections like conjunctivitis (pink eye), ear infections and tonsillitis.
what are sexually transmitted diseases stds sexually transmitted infections stis
What are Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)/Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)?
  • STDs/STIs are pathogens transmitted through sexual relationships.

Such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, herpes,

warts(human papilloma virus) and hepatitis.

slide24
2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

West Virginia High School

Percentage of students who ever had sexual intercourse

100

80

68.9

59.3

53.8

52.5

60

49.4

51.1

40.3

40

20

0

Total

Males

Females

9th

10th

11th

12th

QN57 - Weighted Data

slide25
WOW!
  • A total of 52.5% of West Virginia children in grades 9th-12th have experienced sexual intercourse. The lower grades are increasing in sexual intercourse statistics.

This puts them at risk for HIV/AIDS/STDs.

slide27
1992–2004—United StatesEstimated numbers of AIDS cases in children <13 years of age, by year of diagnosis,
slide32
2004 United States (CDC)Estimated rates for children <13 years of age living with HIV infection (not AIDS) or with AIDS (per 100,000 population)
slide33
2004 United States (CDC)Estimated rates for adults and adolescents living with HIV infection (not AIDS) or with AIDS (per 100,000 population),
2005 west virginia youth risk behavior survey yrbs
2005 West VirginiaYouth Risk Behavior Survey(YRBS)

View on line at the following address: http://wvde.state.wv.us/osshp/main/programs.html .

west virginia ages 0 19 with hiv aids from june 2006 wvdhhr epi log
West Virginia Ages 0-19with HIV/AIDS from June 2006-WVDHHR Epi-Log

Age

Under 5 y.o.= 13 (1%)

5-12 y.o. = 3 (<1%)

13-19 y.o.= 54 (3%)

wv statistics on race and gender with hiv aids from june 2006 wvdhhr epi log
WV Statistics on Race and Gender with HIV/AIDS from June 2006-WVDHHR Epi-Log

Race (Total=2152)

Caucasian=1551 (72%)

African American=559 (26%)

Other/Unknown=42 (2%)

Gender (Total=2152)

Male=1525 (73%)

Female=359 (19%)

risk behaviors for wv population with hiv aids june 2006 wvdhhr epi log
Risk Behaviors for WV population with HIV/AIDS June 2006-WVDHHR Epi-Log

Pediatric (Total =9)

Mother with/at HIV Risk=15 (94%)

Adolescent/Adult (Total=1228)

Men who have sex with Men (MSM)=1080 (51%)

Injection Drug Use (IDU)=358 (17%)

Heterosexual Contact=357 (16%)

prevention is equivalent to
Prevention is equivalent to:

Education

+

Goal Setting/Decision Making

+

Student Advocacy/Self Management

+

Positive Youth Development

+

Assets (School and Community)

west virginia law
West Virginia Law
  • West Virginia Code §18-2-9
  • Required Courses of Instruction-requires health education in grades six through twelve to educate on the prevention, transmission and spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome and other sexually transmitted diseases. Allows for parents and guardians to examine the course curriculum requirements and materials. The parent or guardian may exempt the child from participation in such instruction in giving written notice to the school principle.
  • West Virginia §18-5-15d
  • Requires AIDSin-service training programs for all school personnel with encouraged attendance of parents.
west virginia board of education policy
West Virginia Board of EducationPolicy

Policy 2520.5

  • Health Education Content Standards Objectives

EFFECTIVE July 1, 2007:

Policy 2422.4 and 2422.45 will be repealed and replaced with

Policy 2423, Communicable Disease. Communicable Disease in-services will be required every 2 years for all school personnel with emphasis on HIV/AIDS.

health education content standards of learning k 12 policy 2520 5
Health Education Content Standards of LearningK-12Policy 2520.5
  • Standard 1: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (HE.S.1)

Students will:

comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention.

  • Standard 2: Health Information and Services (HE.S.2)

Students will:

demonstrate the ability to access valid health information and health-promoting products and services.

  • Standard 3: Health Behaviors (HE.S.3)

Students will:

demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors and reduce health risks.

health education content standards of learning
Health Education Content Standards of Learning
  • Standard 4: Culture, Media, and Technology (HE.S.4)

Students will:

analyze the influence of culture, media, technology, and other factors on health.

  • Standard 5: Communication (HE.S.5)

Students will:

demonstrate the ability to use interpersonal communication skills to enhance health.

  • Standard 6: Goal Setting and Decision Making (HE.S.6)

Students will:

demonstrate the ability to use goal-setting and decision-making skills to enhance health.

  • Standard 7: Advocacy (HE.S.7)

Students will:

demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health.

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