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Specialized Strength Training

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  1. Specialized Strength Training 陳建名

  2. Introduction • Research supported the principles • Relatively infrequent workouts • 2 or 3 sessions per week • Relatively brief workouts • One set of 8~12 reps for 8~12 ex’s • Relatively slow movement speed • 6 or more seconds per repetition • Relatively full movement range • Through extended and flexed joint positions • Relatively small progressions • 1~3 pound weightload increases

  3. Estimated Reps at Percent of 1 Repetition Maximum

  4. Basic strength program for average adults

  5. Resistance training • An integral part of an adult fitness program • A sufficient intensity to enhance strength, muscular endurance, and maintain fat-free mass • Progressive, individualized, and provide a stimulus to all the major muscle groups

  6. Resistance training programs • One set of 8-10 ex’ that conditions the major muscle groups 2-3days a week is recommended • Multiple-set regimens may provide greater benefits (if time allows) • 8-12 reps of each ex’ • Older and frail persons(50-60 y/o and above), 10-15 reps may be more appropriate

  7. Results • American College of Sports Medicine exercise guidelines Westcott and Guy 1996

  8. The results means • As good as those attained using more demanding and complex ex’ protocols • A brief strength training program can be highly effective for muscle conditioning

  9. Basic strength training program • 12 ex’ • Pair exercise for opposing muscles • Staring with the legs and progressing to the upper body, arms, midsection, and neck groups • 1 set each ex’ • Weightload 8-12 RM

  10. Basic strength training program • moderate movement speed (about 6 secs) • full range • 12 reps can be completed, weightload increased by 5% or less • 2 or 3 days a week (90% as much benefit from twice a week as three-day-a-week training)

  11. Strict training procedures • ACSM 1998, Sudy 1991, Westcott 1987

  12. Avoid muscle loss Avoid metabolic rate reduction Increase muscle mass Increase metabolic rate Reduce body fat Increase bone mineral density Improve glucose metabolism Increase gastrointestinal transit speed Reduce resting blood pressure Improve blood lipid levels Reduce low back pain Reduce arthritic pain 12 reasons to strength train

  13. Strength training guidelines • Frequency • Every-other-day VS. Back-to-back • Duration • 8-12 reps on each machine, 6 secs per rep. • Intensity • Heavy enough to fatigue the target m. group within 8-12 rep. • Speed • 6 secs per rep. , 2 secs to lift, 4 secs to lower

  14. Strength training guidelines • Range • Full range of pain free j’t movement • Greater m. effort, j’t flexibility, and performance power • Progression • Adding 1~3 pounds • Progressive resistance is the key to continued strength development • Continuity • Machine to machine in order • Works the muscles from larger to smaller groups

  15. Recommendations for safe and effective exercise participation • Treat exercise as positive rather than negative • Maintain regular workouts • Discontinue your workout in the event of illness or injury • Record important information regarding each training session

  16. Recommendations for safe and effective exercise participation • Wear specifically-designed athletic shoes and lightweight exercise clothing • Drink plenty of water before, during, and after exercise • Wait 2 hours after a large meal to engage in vigorous exercise • Eat nutritionally sound meals

  17. Implementation options for the basic strength training • Aerobic activity (moderate effort level) does not interfere with strength development (McCarthy et al 1995) • Adding stretching exercise may have dual benefits, enhancing flexibility and strength development

  18. Workout for weight loss

  19. Muscle mass and energy • At rest a pound of muscle requires over 35 calories a day for ongoing remodeling process (Campbell et al. 1994) • Inactive individuals lose about 5 pounds of muscle every decade of adult life • Lack of strength ex’→ less muscle → reduced metabolic rate → reduced energy need → more calories store in fat cells

  20. Fat loss • Endurance training does not replace muscle tissue that has been lost or prevent further muscle loss • Strength training and dieting may be the best way to simultaneously add muscle and lose fat (Darden 1987)

  21. Study 1 (Role of strength exercise in weight loss program)

  22. Study 2 (Role of diet in weight loss program)

  23. Weight loss program • 12 basic Nautilus exercises • Endurance ex’ • Stationary cycling and treadmill walking • Begins at present fitness level and progresses gradually to 25 mins of continuous aerobic activity • Warm up, steady-state, cool down • Does not elicit more than 75% HR max

  24. Weight loss program • No response differences whether the strength training is performed before or after the endurance exercise (Westcott and La Rosa Loud 1999)

  25. Participant motivation • Over weight individuals experienced • Diet programs (most) • Exercise programs (few) • Misconception that strength training increases bodyweight

  26. Clear training objectives Concise instruction and precise demonstration Attentive supervision Appropriate assistance One task at a time Gradual progression Positive reinforcement Specific feedback Careful questioning Pre and post exercise dialogue Participant motivation

  27. Weight loss marketing model • Nautilus weight loss program • 80 members per session • Total 320 participants per year • The program fee is $250 per person • $80,000 in annual income

  28. Basic strength program for cellulite • 1 set of 10-15 rep. , slow speed, full range • Hip and thigh muscles • Leg curl, leg extension, hip add., hip abd., leg press • 10 minutes for completion

  29. Basic endurance program for cellulite • 10 minutes of continuous ex’ on a treadmill, cycle, stepper, etc… • 2 mins warm up • 2 mins cool down • 70% HR max • 3 days a week • 8 weeks

  30. Extended program • 5 more ex’ for the upper body and midsection muscles • Recommended machines • Bench press • Compound row • Overhead press • Abdominal • Low back • 20 mins strength, 20 mins endurance

  31. Senior strength

  32. Small class format • 10-week senior exercise program • 6 person class with 2 instructors • 25-30 minutes strength training(12 ex’) • 20-25 minutes aerobic activities • 1 set of 8-12 rep. in each ex’ • Increase weightload 2-3 pounds • Slow speed (6 secs per rep.), full range

  33. Training exercises for shorter session

  34. Training frequency and set • 2 and 3 training sessions per week to be equally effective (DeMichele et al. 1997) • Single and multiple-set training protocols have proven effective for increasing muscle strength and mass in senior men and women (Frontera et al. 1988) • Compare 1 and 3 sets of ex’ have found no difference during the first few months (Starkey et al. 1996)

  35. Training resistance • 60~90% of max resistance • Under 60% • Light and provide less muscle building stimulus • Over 90% • Heavy and may present more injury risk • 70~80 • Safe and effective weightload range

  36. Training repetitions • 8 repetitions with 80% max resistance • 12 repetitions with 70% max resistance • Frail older adult • Somewhat lighter weightloads that permit about 15 rep. per set (Feigenbaum and Pollock 1999)

  37. Training technique • Body stability and back support • Avoid unnecessary blood pressure elevation • Exhale during concentric • Inhale during eccentric • Never hold their breath

  38. Elderly strength training study

  39. Youth strength

  40. Damage or not?? • We were led to believe that resistance training would damage the bone growth plates and retard their musculoskeletal development • In fact, there has never been a case reported (NSCA 1995) • Strength training influences on bone formation (Morris et al. 1997)

  41. Study 1 • 10 y/o boys and girls made overall strength gains of 74% after 2 months of twice-a-week training

  42. Study 2 • Changes in chest press strength for ex’ and control subjects over 8-week training and 8-week detraining periods(24 subjects, mean age 10 years)

  43. Study 3 • Changes in body composition for exercisers and controls after 8-week training period (42 subjects, mean age 11 tears)

  44. Strength training guidelines • Ex’ selection • 8-10 basic strength ex’ (major m. groups) • Ex’ frequency • 2 or 3 non-consecutive days per week • Ex’ sets • 1 or more sets of each ex’ • Ex’ repetitions • 8-12 rep. per set