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LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas?

LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas?

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LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas?

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  1. LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas? • Pre-read Chapter 16 Section 1 • Write 3 important facts, in complete sentences, about each state of matter that would help you answer the lesson essential question. • Number each fact! • Write 2 Questions that you still have over the reading. • This will count as your reflection tonight!

  2. Bell Ringer09/05/2012 • Grab your folder!!!! • Have out reflections/notes from yesterday to be stamped! • Look at the display in front of the room… • Describe, in complete sentences, what you see in each box. • Ask the people at your table your 2 questions and see if they can answer them. Work on Test corrections when you are finished!!!

  3. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas? • Bell Ringer 09/06/2012 • Write Question and Answer • What is capillary action?

  4. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas? • Bell Ringer 09/07/2012 • Describe and illustrate the physical differences among solids, liquids, and gases in terms of their mass, volume, density, shape, and particle arrangement.

  5. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior? Unit 1: MatterStructure and Properties

  6. Concept: Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes

  7. Vocabulary • Choose 1: How to do Vocabulary: • Write word and definition. Underline and highlight vocabulary word. • Write word on front and definition on back of index cards. • Create a poem or rap of vocabulary words and definitions. • Create foldable with words and definitions. • Create a crossword puzzle. Also make answer key!!! • Kinetic theory • Property • Density • Physical property • Chemical property • Matter • Volume • Physical change • Chemical change

  8. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas? • What are the 3 assumptions to kinetic theory? • All matter composed of small particles (atoms, molecules, ions) • Particles are in constant random motion • Particles are colliding with each other and the walls of their containers • Overall, kinetic energy is how fast the molecules are moving and will do so at all temperatures.

  9. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas? • Solids • Holds shape! Why? • Definite shape and Definite volume • Not compressible (naturally) because packed tightly • Usually most dense phase of a substance because packed tightly • Exception: water • Definite melting points. Least amount of energy. Movement of particles is slow and around fixed points; but, increases with increase in temperature. • Low rate of diffusion b/c low mobility of particles

  10. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas? • Two types of Solids • Crystalline solid • Particles are in an orderly, geometric, repeating pattern • Have definite melting points • Amorphous solid (plastics and glass) • Particles are arranged randomly • No definite melting points

  11. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas? • Liquids • Definite volume but no definite shape • Take shape of container • Particles free to move/slide past one another; but, still held together by intermolecular forces • Cannot be compressed under common pressure • Can transmit pressure equally in all directions • Usually less dense than solids; but, more dense than gases • Diffuses at average speed

  12. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas? • Bell Ringer 09/07/2012 • Write Question and answer in a complete sentence. • Explain what happens in surface tension.

  13. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas? • Surface Tension • Drawing molecules together to decrease surface area • Predict: How many drops of water do you think will fit on a penny? Was your prediction correct? • Capillary Action • When surface of a liquid and solid meet, surface of liquid molecules are pulled upward, against the pull of gravity, along surface of solid • Meniscus • Observation: What is reading on the graduated cylinder?

  14. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas? • Gases • No fixed shape, no fixed volume • Too much energy to remain attached. Particles vibrate at high speeds. • Gas takes shape of container by expanding • Less dense than solids and liquids • Still considered a fluid • Can be compressed easily with very little pressure. However, once it is contained, it want to escape the container.

  15. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas? • Diffusion • Spontaneous mixing of particles of two substances caused by random motion

  16. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas? • Plasmas • Once molecule is superheated, electrons leave the atoms in the molecules • +/- charged particles • Stars, lightening bolts, neon/fluorescent bulbs, auroras

  17. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas? • Exit slip • State of matter with indefinite volume and indefinite shape • State of mater with definite volume and definite shape • State of matter with definite volume and indefinite shape

  18. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: What are the differences among solid, liquids, gases, and plasmas? • Homework: • Continue to work on Vocabulary. Due Tuesday! • Write Questions and Answers • Pg. 483 #’s 1, 2 • Pg. 500-501 #’s 5, 8, 12, 16 • Pg. 502 #s 1, 4, 6, 19

  19. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: What are the appropriate units to measure or calculate the mass and volume of substances? • Bell Work 09/11/2012 • First, write LEQ above. • Write Questions and Answer • What are the appropriate units for mass, volume, and density? • How do you calculate density? • Mass = kg, g • Volume = cm³, m³ • Density = g/cm³, g/L, g/mL, kg/L, kg/m³ • D = M/V

  20. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior? • Writing a lab report. • Follow the template • Keep template in reference section of notebook.

  21. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: How can I calculate the density of substances or objects? • Use water displacement to obtain Volume -or- calculate mathematically • Remember that 1 cm³ = 1 mL • To calculate volume of cylinder: • Use triple balance beam/electronic balance to measure the mass of object

  22. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior? LEQ: What are the appropriate units to measure or calculate the mass and volume of substances? LEQ: How can I calculate the density of substances or objects? You should have out your lab papers, the reference sheet on how to write a lab report and a separate sheet of paper to write out your lab report!

  23. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: How do you construct and interpret a density column? • Bell Work 09-17-2012 • Write Question and Answer • What do you think a density column is?

  24. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: How do you construct and interpret a density column? • Some liquids are denser than others • When you layer them, the denser liquids will sink to bottom

  25. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: How do you construct and interpret a density column? • Some liquids are denser than others • When you layer them, the denser liquids will sink to bottom

  26. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: How do you construct and interpret a density column? • Write the following information and calculate the density: • Water • volume: 1.5 mL mass: 1.5g • Vegetable oil • volume: 1.5 mL mass: 1.38 g • Dish soap • volume: 1.5 mL mass: 1.59 g • Rubbing alcohol • volume: 1.5 mL mass: 1.22 g • Lamp oil • volume: 1.5 mL mass: 1.20 g

  27. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior? LEQ: How can physical and chemical changes be investigated in the lab setting? • Bell Work 09-18-2012 • Write Question and Answer • Observe the magnesium strip. • What are some physical properties of magnesium? What are some chemical properties? • Propose a way you could physically change the magnesium strip and one way you could chemically change the magnesium strip.

  28. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior? LEQ: How can physical and chemical changes be investigated in the lab setting? • What is a property? • A unique characteristic that categorizes (groups or identifies) objects/substances together

  29. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior? LEQ: How can physical and chemical changes be investigated in the lab setting? Physical properties Chemical properties Ability to change from one substance to a new substance Ability to produce a gas, burn, rust Example: Copper w/ moist air • Characteristic observed or measured without changing substance • Melting point, boiling point, color, size, ductility, malleable, density, ability to conduct heat or electricity

  30. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior? LEQ: How can physical and chemical changes be investigated in the lab setting? Physical changes Chemical changes Substance changes into new substance b/c chemical bonds have been broken or made Occurs on molecular level Noticed by temperature change, smell/odor, bubbles (gas), rust formation Reactants products • does not change the identity or chemical makeup of the substance • Cutting, melting, drawing into wire, crushing, temperature and pressure changes

  31. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior? LEQ: How can physical and chemical changes be investigated in the lab setting? • PREDICT: • Write down a prediction of what you think will occur upon mixing lead nitrate and potassium iodide.

  32. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior? LEQ: How can physical and chemical changes be investigated in the lab setting? • Extra Credit: (3 points to test grade) • Search the internet for important uses of Potassium Iodide. Write down any important uses and turn in tomorrow. • Also, while you are searching the internet, see if you can find why Potassium Iodide should be stored in a closed amber colored bottle.

  33. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior? LEQ: How can physical and chemical changes be investigated in the lab setting? • Bell Work 09-19-2012 • Write question and answer. • Explain how you could you prove the Law of Conservation of Mass.

  34. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior? LEQ: How can physical and chemical changes be investigated in the lab setting? • Law of Conservation of Mass • Mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes • Therefore, the mass before the reaction will be equal to the mass after the reaction

  35. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior? LEQ: How can physical and chemical changes be investigated in the lab setting? • Homework Assignment: • Pg. 465 #’s 1-5 • Pg. 470-471 #’s 4, 8, 10, 13-16 • Pg. 472 #’s 4, 6, 7

  36. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior? • LEQ: When temperature changes, how are the 4 states of matter affected?

  37. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: When temperature changes, how are the 4 states of matter affected? • Vocabulary • Write word and definition. Underline and highlight vocabulary word. • Write word on front and definition on back of index cards. • Create a poem or rap of vocabulary words and definitions. • Create foldable with words and definitions. • Create a crossword puzzle using words and definitions. Also make answer key!!! • Kelvin • Celsius • Fahrenheit • Boyles Law • Charles’ Law • Bernoulli’s Principle • Archimedes Principle • Pascal’s Principle • Fluid • Freezing point • Boiling point • Melting point • Phase diagram • Law of conservation of energy/mass

  38. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: When temperature changes, how are the 4 states of matter affected? • Bell Work 09-20-2012 • Write question and answer. • Explain the difference between evaporation and vaporization. • Evaporation is liquid leaving the surface without reaching boiling point. Vaporization is liquid becoming vapor due to boiling.

  39. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: When temperature changes, how are the 4 states of matter affected? • Energy is required to change the states of matter!

  40. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: When temperature changes, how are the 4 states of matter affected? • Phase Changes of Matter • Sublimation(dry ice, iodine) • Melting (heat of fusion) • Vaporization (“boiling” heat of vaporization) • Condensation (dew) • Solidification (freezing, crystallization) • Deposition (fire extinguisher)

  41. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: When temperature changes, how are the 4 states of matter affected? Gas vapor Matter is in gaseous state; but, normally in liquid state at room temp • Matter exists in gaseous state at room temp

  42. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: When temperature changes, how are the 4 states of matter affected? • AvgKE doesn’t change at plateau, this is potential energy where atoms/molecules are rearranging • Lower plateaus should be shorter because it takes less energy to change state • Slopes – kinetic energy

  43. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: When temperature changes, how are the 4 states of matter affected? • What is equilibrium? • 2 opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system. • Occurs at plateaus

  44. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: When temperature changes, how are the 4 states of matter affected? • Boiling point • Temp at which vaporized pressure = atmospheric pressure • Freezing point • Temp at which solid and liquid are in equilibrium at 1 atmospheric pressure

  45. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: When temperature changes, how are the 4 states of matter affected? • Exit slip: • Sum up today’s lesson in 6 words!!!

  46. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: When temperature changes, how are the 4 states of matter affected? Bell Work 09/21/2012 Write Question and Answer Explain the relationship between heat of fusion of a solid and the attraction between the particles. The greater the attraction between the molecules results in greater amount of energy needed to overcome the attraction -or- higher heat of fusion

  47. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: How will the phases of matter be affected by changes in volume pressure and temperature? • Phase Diagram • A graph of the relationship b/t the physical state of a substance and the temperature and pressure of the substance

  48. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: How will the phases of matter be affected by changes in volume pressure and temperature? • What is triple point? • Temperature and pressure conditions where all 3 states of matter existstogether at equilibrium • What is critical point? • The temperature and pressure at which the gas and liquid states of a substance become identical and form one phase

  49. UEQ: How does the structure of matter influence its physical and chemical behavior?LEQ: How will the phases of matter be affected by changes in volume pressure and temperature? • Particle of liquid cannot escape due to air pressure pushing down on surface of liquid • When liquid particles gain enough KE (from heat) to break through the surface, the liquid boils. This can also occur by decreasing the amount of pressure.

  50. 4.2 Properties of Fluids • Buoyancy-ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object that is immersed in it