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Getting Started in Library Grant Writing An Infopeople Workshop. Instructor: Holly Hinman hinmanh@infopeople.org March-April 2005. Workshop Overview. The world of grantsmanship Planning to write Anatomy of a grant proposal Need Goals, objectives/outcomes Evaluation Budget

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getting started in library grant writing an infopeople workshop
Getting Started in Library Grant WritingAn Infopeople Workshop

Instructor:

Holly Hinman

hinmanh@infopeople.org

March-April 2005

workshop overview
Workshop Overview
  • The world of grantsmanship
  • Planning to write
  • Anatomy of a grant proposal
    • Need
    • Goals, objectives/outcomes
    • Evaluation
    • Budget
  • Finding a funder
quick grant quiz true or false
Quick Grant QuizTrue or false
  • You can get grants to make up for budget cuts.
  • You can pay for personnel from grants.
  • Grants are “free money” – no strings attached.
  • Grants must be for something totally new.
  • It’s important to establish a personal relationship with the funding source.
  • After you take this workshop you will be 100% successful in your quests for grant funding.
sources for grants
Sources for Grants
  • Government
    • Federal
    • State
    • Local
  • Foundations
    • Private
    • Community
  • Corporations
grant seeking vs fundraising
Grant Seeking vs. Fundraising
  • Written application
  • Standard format
  • Formal
  • Relatively high level of effort

If you need only a small amount of money, fundraising may be a better way to go!

what makes a good proposal
What Makes a Good Proposal?
  • Matches funder’s interests and priorities
  • Demonstrates strong need
  • Offers something new or creative
  • Offers a model that can be replicated
  • Has tangible outcomes or products
  • Has a reasonable, defensible budgets
  • Can be accomplished in finite timeframe
  • Follows directions and is well written!
getting ready to write
Getting Ready to Write
  • Grant resource file
    • library fact sheet, org chart
    • latest guidelines/info from funding source
    • sample successful proposals
  • Internal planning/writing team
  • Advisory group including end users
  • Needs assessment involving end users
  • Personal contact with funding source
general advice for grant writers
General Advice for Grant Writers
  • Develop a personal relationship with your funding source
  • Read and follow directions!
  • Write so “grandma” can understand
  • Be kind to the grant reviewers
    • Use 12-point, clear font
    • Number pages
  • Find out how your proposal will be evaluated
group questions
Group Questions
  • Now that we’ve discussed some criteria for successful grant proposals, do you think the idea that you came with would be successful or not?
  • What could you change to make your grant concept stronger?
anatomy of a grant proposal
Anatomy of a Grant Proposal
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Needs assessment
  • Goals and objectives
  • Plan of action
  • Evaluation
  • Budget
project summary
Project Summary
  • Appears first
  • Written last
  • Important because:
    • it’s used for screening
    • may be only section read
  • Do not exceed space limit
  • Can cut-and-paste from other sections
introduction
Introduction
  • Basic info about applicant
  • May be separate section
  • Often part of narrative (needs or plan of action)
  • Boilerplate OK here
  • Not needed for state LSTA
a good needs assessment
A Good Needs Assessment
  • Provides the foundation for the rest of the proposal
  • Is written from the users’ perspective
  • Involves the users in identification of need
  • Is supported by evidence
    • hard data
    • soft data
if the need is for a thing
If the Need Is for a “Thing”…..

Reevaluate!!!

Weak: The Large County Library needs a bookmobile.

Stronger: Residents of rural areas in Large County need access to library materials ….

the 5 w s of needs assessment
The 5 W’s of Needs Assessment
  • Whoare the people with the need?
  • Whereare they located?
  • Whatis their problem or need?
  • Whendoes the problem or need occur?
  • Whydoes the problem or need occur?
more needs assessment questions
More Needs Assessment Questions
  • Howdoes the need relate to:
    • Funder’s mission and current priorities
    • Library’s mission, programs, and priorities?
  • Who else is interested?
  • Whatwill be the community impact?
rewrite these needs statements
Rewrite These Needs Statements:
  • We need more computers.
  • The school library needs more books.
  • Anytown PL needs a community meeting room
  • Poor County Library needs a literacy program.
  • Main Library needs a book security system.
anatomy of a grant proposal1
Anatomy of a Grant Proposal
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Needs assessment
  • Goals and objectives
  • Plan of action
  • Evaluation
  • Budget
goals
Goals
  • Broad, long-range, general
  • Not measurable
  • Related to mission
  • May not be attained

Example: The goal of this project is to provide free and convenient access to library resources to all people in Large County.

objectives
Objectives

Measurable

Time-specific

Reflect change in target group

Relate to needs

Should show improvement

Can be evaluated and should be attained

slide21
When agencies fund your project, they are actually buying your objectives. When evaluators evaluate your project, they are measuring whether you accomplished what you said you were going to do in your program objectives.

-- Stanley Levenson, How to Get Grants and Gifts for the Public Schools, 2002.

developing good objectives
Developing Good Objectives
  • Start from needs assessment
  • Select measurement indicators
  • Set performance standards
  • Determine time frame
  • Write the objective
  • Evaluate the objective
objectives answer questions
Objectives Answer Questions
  • Whois going to be impacted or changed?
  • Whatis going to happen?
  • Whenwill it happen?
  • How muchchange will take place?
  • Howwill change be measured?
standard objective format
Standard Objective Format

To <action verb and statement of results and measurement indicator>

by <degree of change>

by <deadline>

Example: To increase by at least one grade level the reading skills of 75% of the children who complete the Reading Enrichment Program.

verbs used in objectives
increase

decrease

improve

reduce

expand

eliminate

enhance

diminish

augment

add

lessen

maximize

minimize

access

Verbs Used in Objectives
fix the objective
Fix the Objective
  • To implement a public computer training program.
  • To train library staff in MS Word.
  • To digitize 10,000 photographs from the local history collection.
common problems
Common Problems
  • Confuse methods with objective
  • Write in terms of the institution instead of the user
  • Fail to quantify
  • Set unrealistic degree of change
anatomy of a grant proposal2
Anatomy of a Grant Proposal
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Needs assessment
  • Goals and objectives
  • Plan of action
  • Evaluation
  • Budget
plan of action
Plan of Action
  • Narrative
  • Often has page limits
  • Includes:

Personnel

Timeline

Publicity

key questions
Key Questions
  • Who will be involved in the project?
    • target group
    • project staff
    • consultants
  • What activities will take place?
    • connect to objective
    • provide detail
  • When will each step take place?
    • include timeline
  • Why is this approach being used?
    • describe alternatives
graphics attachments
Graphics/Attachments
  • Timeline
  • Organization chart
  • Resumes
  • Sample materials, products
  • RFP’s
anatomy of a grant proposal3
Anatomy of a Grant Proposal
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Needs assessment
  • Goals and objectives
  • Plan of action
  • Evaluation
  • Budget
evaluation
Evaluation
  • Will your project make a difference?
  • Program evaluation serves 2 purposes:
    • To determine if the project has met objectives.
    • To gather information to improve the project.
types of evaluation
Types of Evaluation
  • Process evaluation
  • Summative evaluation
  • Outcomes measurement
outcomes measurement
Outcomes Measurement

Outcome = Impact on end user

Impact = changes in:

  • Behavior
  • Attitude
  • Skills
  • Knowledge
  • Condition/state

-- Rhea Rubin, So What? Using Outcomes Measurement to Assess the Impact of Library Programs, 2005

evaluation plan
Evaluation Plan
  • Results you expect
  • Data you will collect
  • Data collection techniques
  • What records will be kept
  • Who is responsible
  • When evaluation will take place
anatomy of a grant proposal4
Anatomy of a Grant Proposal
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Needs assessment
  • Goals and objectives
  • Plan of action
  • Evaluation
  • Budget
the bottom line your budget
The Bottom Line: Your Budget

Budgeting is simply the process of translating the project plan into fiscal terms.

---Mary Hall, Getting Funded: A Complete Guide to Proposal Writing

budget basics steps to take
Budget Basics: Steps to Take
  • Review funder’s guidelines and requirements
  • Follow your organization’s budget practices
  • Identify every cost element in plan of action
  • Create a budget worksheet
  • Put calculations into required format
basic budget terms
Basic Budget Terms
  • Direct costs
  • Indirect costs
  • Matching funds
  • In-kind contributions
  • Personnel
  • Non-personnel
anatomy of a grant proposal5
Anatomy of a Grant Proposal
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Needs assessment
  • Goals and objectives
  • Plan of action
  • Evaluation
  • Budget
finding a funder
If your project:

Focuses on local needs

Can be a model for other libraries in the state

Can be a model for programs in other states

Affects a multistate area

Start with:

Local foundations and corporations

State programs and state foundations

Federal programs and national foundations

Federal or state programs & national foundations

Finding a Funder
resources for government grants
Resources for Government Grants
  • Federal
    • Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) (available online)
    • Federal Register (available online)
    • Agency mailing lists
  • State
    • State agency websites
    • State agency mailing lists
  • Local
    • Personal contacts
resources for private grants foundations and corporations
Resources for Private Grants – Foundations and Corporations

What the CFDA is to researching federal grants, the Foundation Center and its publications are to researching foundation grants.

www.fdncenter.org

foundation center
Foundation Center
  • Libraries
    • San Francisco
    • 22 Cooperating Collections in CA
  • Key publications
    • Foundation Directory
      • also available online
    • Foundation Grants Index
tips for finding foundation funding
Tips for Finding Foundation Funding
  • Location, location, location
  • Check eligibility
    • 501(c)3 status
  • Types of support
  • Purpose/areas of interest
  • Contact before submitting
getting corporate funding
Getting Corporate Funding
  • Start with corporations in your community or area
    • Corporations “give where they live”
  • Make a personal connection
  • Find out how the corporation handles giving
  • Show how company or employees will benefit
library friendly funding sources
Library-Friendly Funding Sources
  • State LSTA programs
  • Other library-specific state programs
  • IMLS (Institute of Museum and Library Services)
  • NEH (National Endowment for the Humanities)
  • ALA
  • Community Foundations
  • Local corporations (Target, Walmart)
post submission
Post-Submission
  • Don’t call or email the funder
  • If you are funded: Celebrate !
  • Then:
    • Notify appropriate officials/staff
    • Send out a press release
    • Begin preliminary activities
    • Thank the funder
if you re not funded
If You’re Not Funded
  • Ask for a copy of the reviewers’ comments
  • Strategize a new approach
    • revise and resubmit
    • revise and submit to another source
  • Don’t give up!