Treaty of Versailles. Ratification Failure 1919-1920. Wilson & the 14 Points. Idealism in Foreign Policy . Wilson was an idealist who wanted this war to “ end all wars. ” He believed that America’s entrance into WWI would “ make the world safe for democracy .”
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Ratification Failure 1919-1920
Idealism in Foreign Policy
6. Evacuation of all Russian territory
7. Evacuation and restoration of Belgium
8. Evacuation and restoration of all French lands; (Alsace-Lorraine to be returned to France.
9. Readjustment of Italy’s frontiers
10. Self-determination for former subjects of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
11. Evacuation of Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro, free access to the sea for Serbia
12. Self-determination for the former subjects of the Ottoman Empire; sovereignty for Turkey
13. Establishment of an independent Poland
Mistake #1 He attempted to get Democrats elected to Congress in the November 1918 mid-term elections, thus abandoning his “politics is adjourned pledge”—it backfires and the Republicans gain a majority in the Senate. Postwar economic issues are largely responsible.
France: Georges Clemenceau
Britain: David Lloyd George
Italy: Vittorio Orlando
America: Woodrow Wilson
Germany was stripped of:
100% of her pre-war colonies
80% of her pre-war fleet
48% of all iron production
16% of all coal production
13% of her 1914 territory
12% of her population
"Squeeze them until the pips squeak."
Germany was forbidden to construct fortifications on the Rhine River
Territories of Alsace-Lorraine are restored to France
Germany will respect the independence of Austria
Germany will respect the independence of a Czecho-Slovak State
Germany will respect the independence of Poland
German army must not exceed 100,000 men
German navy must not exceed 6 battleships, 6 light cruisers, 12 destroyers, 12 torpedo boats…No submarines. Germany had to build ships for the Allies.
No tanks, aircraft or heavy artillery were to be manufactured for the German armed forces
Article 231, “War Guilt Clause”: Germany accepts the responsibility for causing all the loss and damage to the Allied and Associated Governments
Article 232, Germany will make compensation for all damage done to the civilian populations and their property (The amount was fixed at $33 billion dollars)
Article 428, Germany territory to the west of the Rhine River will be occupied by Allied and Associated troops for 15 years.