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Early Abolitionism. Abolitionism Pg. 362-363. Ch 16 Notes. The Quakers were among the first to advocate abolitionism during the Revolution.
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Early Abolitionism Abolitionism Pg. 362-363
Ch 16 Notes • The Quakers were among the first to advocate abolitionism during the Revolution. • The American Colonization Society was created in 1817 to send back slaves to Africa. In 1822 the Republic of Liberia was established for former slaves. This didn’t work because the salves were now mostly African-Americans with their own distinctive culture and partly Americanized.
Ch 16 Notes • Great Britain freed its slaves in the West Indies in 1833. • The Second Great Awakening helped bring many people to the cause of Abolitionism, including Theodore Dwight Weld. He spread abolitionism with his effective propaganda pamphlet, American Slavery As It Is (1839), which influenced Harriet Beecher Stowe who later wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
Radical Abolitionism Pages 363 - 365
William Lloyd Garrison 1805-1879 Shattering abolitionist, mild-looking reformer of twenty six Son of a drunken father and spiritual child of the Second Great Awakening Published in Boston the first issue of his militantly antislavery broadside on New Year’s Day 1831
1805-1879 The most conspicuous and most vilified of the abolitionists, Garrison was a nonresistant pacifist and a poor organizer. He favored northern secession from the South and antagonized both sections with his intemperate language
William Lloyd Garrison “Under no circumstances would he tolerate the poisonous weed of slavery but would stamp it out at once, root and branch.” Stubbornly principled Repeatedly demanded that the “virtuous” North secede from the “wicked” South Publically burned a copy of the Constitution on July 4, 1854 – “a covenant with death and an agreement with hell”
Other Abolitionists • Founded the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833 • Wendell Phillips • Boston patrician known as “abolition’s golden trumpet” • A man of strict principle: wouldn’t eat cane sugar or wear cotton cloth, since both were produced by southern slaves.
Other Abolitionists • David Walker • Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World (1829) advocated a bloody end to white supremacy • Sojourner Truth • Freed black woman in New York who fought tirelessly for black emancipation and women’s rights • Martin Delaney • Took the nation of mass recolonization of Africa seriously • Visited West Africa’s Niger Valley in 1859 seeking a suitable place for relocation
David Walker Wendell Phillips
Martin Delaney Sojourner Truth (Isabella Baumfree)
Frederick Douglass Escaped bondage in 1838 at the age of twenty-one Discovered by the abolitionists in 1841, gave stunning impromptu speech at a antislavery meeting in Massachusetts Lectured widely for the cause, despite frequent beatings and threats against his life.
Frederick Douglass • Increasingly looked to politics to end the blight of slavery • 1845 – published his classic autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass • Depicted his remarkable origins as the son of a black slave woman and a white father • Struggle to learn to read and write • Eventual escape to the North
Political Abolitionists Backed the Liberty party in 1840, the Free Soil party in 1848, and the Republican party in the 1850s Followed out the logic of their beliefs and supported a frightfully costly fratricidal war as the price of emancipation Men and women of goodwill and various colors who faced the cruel choice: “when is evil so enormous that it must be denounced, even at the risk of precipitating bloodshed and butchery?”
Had you been against slavery at the time, which approach would you have favored? • Radical* • Garrison - repeatedly demanded that the “virtuous” North secede from the “wicked” South • Violence, stubborn ways • Political/practical • Douglass - increasingly looked to politics to end the blight of slavery • Lectures, impromptu
If you had been a moderate Southerner at the time, list two legitimate arguments you might have used against the call of the radical abolitionists for the immediate release of all the slaves with no compensation to their owners. (1) Destroy economy, lack of labor force and drastic decrease in production rates (2) Radical abolitionists and newly freed slaves would commit random acts of violence upon freedom