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The Medieval Era World History II. Periodization. Early Middle Ages : 500 – 1000 High Middle Ages : 1000 – 1250 Late Middle Ages : 1250 - 1500. Europe in the 6c. The Medieval Catholic Church. filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world. monasticism:

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slide1

The Medieval Era

World History II

slide2

Periodization

Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000

High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250

Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500

slide4

The Medieval Catholic Church

  • filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world.
  • monasticism:
    • St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
    • provided schools for the children of the upper class.
    • inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war.
    • libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts.
    • monks  missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]
slide5

The Power of the Medieval Church

  • bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system.
  • the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe.
  • tried to curb feudal warfare  only 40 days a year for combat.
  • curb heresies  crusades; Inquisition
  • tithe  1/10 tax on your assets given to the church.
  • Peter’s Pence  1 penny per person [paid by the peasants].
slide9

Romanesque Architectural Style

  • Rounded Arches.
  • Barrel vaults.
  • Thick walls.
  • Darker, simplistic interiors.
  • Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.
early middle ages
Early Middle Ages
  • Decline of Roman Empire
  • Rise of Northern Europe
  • New forms of government
  • Heavy “Romanization” (religion, language, laws, architecture, government)
  • Latin- “medium aevum” means “middle age” and is source of English word “medieval”
early middle ages1
Early Middle Ages
  • Dark Ages (500 CE- 1000 CE)- scholars named this as a time when the forces of darkness (barbarians) overwhelmed the forces of light (Romans)
  • Rise of influence of barbarians as Roman Emperors had granted barbarian mercenaries land with the Roman Empire in return for military service and it was these barbarians who eventually became the new rulers
merovingians
Merovingians
  • Merovingian is derived from the leader of the tribe of Franks
  • First dynasty after the Romans and ruled for 300 years
  • Leader in 481 CE was Clovis I- he united Frankish tribes and expanded territory
  • His conversion to Christianity won him support from the Church
  • Clovis I wrote Salic Law - assigned a specific financial value to everyone and everything; concept of trial options (trial by oath and trial by ordeal)
  • Merovingian's founded and built many monasteries, churches and palaces and spread Christianity throughout Western Europe
  • IMPACT = Eventually dynasty declined as kings relaxed power and became more like figure heads whereas the real power lay with the powerful officials and leading aristocracy
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uEcQ_Kzxgfg
carolingians
Carolingians
  • Rise of aristocratic Charles Martel who dominated Frankish kingdom in 8th century
  • He confiscated land given to Church and began Church reforms that would restore spirituality to clerical life
  • His son Pepin the Short continued Church reforms and eventually with the support of reformed Church, removed last Merovingian king from throne
  • Established the Carolingian dynasty, named to protect thepapacy and establish the popeand bishops are the makers of kings
  • Greatest legacy was Charles the Great, or Charlemagne
holy roman empire and charlemagne
Holy Roman Empire and Charlemagne

Charlemagne (Charles the Great) who was a military general and restored Pope Leo III who had been exiled

In return, Leo placed a crown on Charlemagne and named him the “Emperor of the Romans” which secured the relationship between Frankish kings and the papacy

Charlemagne became the first ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, a dynasty that would last for more than 700 years

Charlemagne- imposed order on empire through the Church and state

Ordered the standardization of Latin, textbooks, manuals for preaching, schools for clergy and people, new form of handwriting

All these promoted education and scholars and produced a precise written language (Latin)

slide22

Carolingian Miniscule

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XGkUNK8kmDw

vikings give rise to feudalism
Vikings give rise to Feudalism
  • The Vikings came from three countries of Scandinavia: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The name 'Viking' comes from a language called 'Old Norse' and means 'a pirate raid'. People who went off raiding in ships were said to be 'going Viking'.
  • The Viking age in European history was about AD 700 to 1100. During this period many Vikings left Scandinavia and travelled to other countries, such as Britain and Ireland. Some went to fight and steal treasure. Others settled in new lands as farmers, craftsmen or traders.
slide26

Vikings ContinuedSleek fast ships and lack of regard for people enabled the Vikings to terrorize Europe. Typical targets were monestaries and villages.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2fc83VvUeE8
feudalism
Feudalism
  • Increasing violence and lawless countryside
  • Weak turn to the strong for protection, strong want something from the weak
  • Feudalism= relationship between those ranked in a chain of association (kings, vassals, lords, knights, serfs)
  • Feudalism worked because of the notion of mutual obligation, or voluntary co-operation from serf to noble
  • A man’s word was the cornerstone of social life

Key terms

  • Fief = land given by a lord in return for a vassal’s military service and oath of loyalty
  • Serfs= aka villeins or common peasants who worked the lords land
  • Tithe = tax that serfs paid (tax or rent)
  • Corvee= condition of unpaid labour by serfs (maintaining roads or ditches on a manor)
slide28

Feudalism

A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.

slide33

The Road to Knighthood

KNIGHT

SQUIRE

PAGE

slide38

William the Conqueror:Battle of Hastings, 1066(Bayeaux Tapestry)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bQ8A5gRe_Dw&feature=related

slide39

Evolution of England’s Political System

  • Henry I:
    • William’s son.
    • set up a court system.
    • Exchequer dept. of royal finances.
  • Henry II:
    • established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom.
    • grand jury.
    • trial by jury.
slide40

Evolution of England’s Political System

  • Henry I:
    • William’s son.
    • set up a court system.
    • Exchequer dept. of royal finances.
  • Henry II:
    • established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom.
    • grand jury.
    • trial by jury.
slide41

Magna Carta, 1215

  • King John I
  • Runnymeade
  • “Great Charter”
  • monarchs were not above the law.
  • kings had to consult a council of advisors.
  • kings could not tax arbitrarily.
slide42

The Beginnings of the British Parliament

  • Great Council:
    • middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c.
    • eventually called Parliament.
    • by 1400, two chambers evolved:
      • House of Lords  nobles & clergy.
      • House of Commons  knights and burgesses.
slide44

Gothic Architectural Style

  • Pointed arches.
  • High, narrow vaults.
  • Thinner walls.
  • Flying buttresses.
  • Elaborate, ornate, airier interiors.
  • Stained-glass windows.

“Flying” Buttresses

slide52

Medieval Guilds

Guild Hall

  • Commercial Monopoly:
    • Controlled membershipapprentice journeyman  master craftsman
    • Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece].
    • Controlled prices
late middle ages
Late Middle Ages

Black Death

a devastating worldwide pandemic that first struck Europe in the mid 14th century

killed about a third of Europe’s population, an estimated 34 million people.

the bubonic plague aka black death
The Bubonic Plague…aka.. Black Death
  • Called “black death” because of striking symptom of the disease, in which sufferers' skin would blacken due to hemorrhages under the skin
  • Spread by fleas and rats
  • painful lymph node swellings called buboes
  • buboes in the groin and armpits, which ooze pus and blood.
  • damage to the skin and underlying tissue until they were covered in dark blotches
  • Most victims died within four to seven days after infection

EFFECTS

  • Caused massive depopulation and change in social structure
  • Weakened influence of Church
  • Originated in Asia but was blamed on Jews and lepers
path of the plague
Path of the Plague

http://

www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZy6XilXDZQ