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Programmes for breeding of hybrid larch in Germany. Volker Schneck Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institute, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Institute of Forest Genetics, Waldsieversdorf. Introduction

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programmes for breeding of hybrid larch in germany
Programmes for breeding of hybrid larch in Germany

Volker Schneck

Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institute, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Institute of Forest Genetics, Waldsieversdorf

slide2

Introduction

  • The programme for breeding hybrid larch for the north-eastern German lowlands
  • The long-term breeding programme of hybrid larch by Prof. Langner
  • Open questions and problems
slide3

The genus Larix in Germany

Area:

European larch = 224 170 ha (3.2 %)

Japanese larch and hybrids = 73 168 ha (0.7 %)

Harvested seeds per year (mean of 10 years ):

ELA = 270 kg = 5 400 000 plants = 1 500 ha

JLA = 20 kg = 400 000 plants = 110 ha

HLA = 75 kg = 1 500 000 plants = 425 ha

25 200 ha larch stands between 1 and 20 years old = 1 260 ha/year regenerated with larch~4 200 000 plants/year

slide5

Places of hybrid larch breeding in Germany

1968

1954

1960

1935

1936

1985

1958

1950

slide6

The programme for breeding hybrid larch for the north-eastern German lowlands

Aims
  • breeding of hybrid larch with
        • high productivity
        • good quality (stem form)
        • tolerance to different site condition
  • identification of parent trees with good combining ability
  • tested reproductive material according to the regulations of the EU and Germany
  • seed orchards
  • selection of outstanding trees for vegetative propagation
slide7

The programme for breeding hybrid larch for the north-eastern German lowlands

Discription

  • 1950-1965 selection of plus trees and establishing of two clone archives with 970 different plus tree clones (780 L. decidua and 190 L. kaempferi)
  • 1968-1989 three series of controlled crossings mostly between L. decidua and L. kaempferi (250 combinations – incomplete dialles)
  • 1974 three trials with 81 progenies
  • 1986 two trials with 49 progenies
  • 1992 five trials with 42 progenies
slide8

The programme for breeding hybrid larch for the north-eastern German lowlands

Trials

D

F

1974

1986

1992

mean and range for groups of progenies ela 100

Progeny test hybrid larch 1974 - height 2005

Mean and range for groups of progenies (ELA=100 %)

[m]

110.5 %

109.1 %

110.2 %

106.1 %

104.3 %

109.1 %

108.6 %

103.5 %

94.3 %

89.9 %

Floessberg Pfefferteich Luebz

mean and range for groups of progenies ela 10010

Progeny test hybrid larch 1974 – single tree volume 2005

Mean and range for groups of progenies (ELA=100 %)

[dm³]

123.7 %

123.1 %

123.8 %

129.6 %

127.4 %

84.2 %

121.9 %

111.7 %

78.9 %

98.1 %

Floessberg Pfefferteich Luebz

slide13

The programme for breeding hybrid larch for the north-eastern German lowlands

  • Results
  • better growth performance of many hybrid progenies compared with pure European larch (up to 30 % better than the best European larch) = verification of former results about superior growth of hybrid larch
  • significant interactions between progenies and sites for most traits in all series
  • weak correlation between stem form and growth traits
  • identification and selection of parent trees fulfilling the requirements for the approval as “parents of families”
  • 2006 planting of one hybrid larch seed orchard (two clones)
slide14

The long-term breeding programme of hybrid larch by Prof. Langner

Aims

  • evidence of superiority of hybrid larch
  • low expense of work
  • sufficient genetic diversity
  • testing of progenies of many different plus trees on different sites
  • identification of mother trees with a good general combining ability
  • developing of a appropriate procedure for production of hybrid seeds
slide15

The long-term breeding programme of hybrid larch by Prof. Langner

Discription

  • 1955/56 selection of plus trees of Larix decidua in natural stands in the Alps and in secondary stands
  • establishing of a clone archive with 435 different plus tree clones of Larix decidua
  • 1965-1986 production of hybrid seeds without isolation of female flowers and artificial pollination
    • 81 progenies (L. decidua x L. kaempferi), 8 mixed stands, 21 stands pure L. decidua or L. kaempferi
  • 1972-1989 planting of 30 progeny tests
    • 19 sites more suitable for Japanese larch
    • 11 sites more suitable for European larch
slide16

clone B

clone A

clone C

clone D

clone E

European larch

Japanese larch

results

The long-term breeding programme of hybrid larch by Prof. Langner

Results
  • The results verify the superior growth performance of hybrids between Larix decidua and L. kaempferi.
  • Good survival and superior growth of hybrid larch under very different site conditions indicate a high level of adaptability.
  • Identification of 6 progenies which combine growth performance and good quality as well as 8 additional progenies which good growth or good quality.
        • Mother trees usable for establishing seed orchards
  • 1992 approval of a seed orchard (“Kuechengarten” – LOLA 1) – average percentage of hybrids=80 %
open questions and problems germany
Open questions and problems (Germany)
  • open questions:
    • growth of older hybrid larch
    • wood traits and diseases (canker)
    • stimulation of planting hybrid larch in practical forestry
    • integration of hybrids in the close-to-nature siviculture
  • very low interest in planting hybrid larch
  • no new activities for breeding of hybrid larch
  • Clone archives are old and difficult and expensive to manage = danger of loss of the basis for larch breeding.