Dermal and subcutaneous tumors part ii
1 / 70

- PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

Dermal and Subcutaneous Tumors – Part II. Michael Hohnadel March 2004. Kaposi’s Sarcoma. Five Presentations: 1. Classic Middle aged, European men Red, violaceous nodules on toes or soles. Coalesce to form plaques. Brawny edema

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '' - makya

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Dermal and subcutaneous tumors part ii l.jpg

Dermal and Subcutaneous Tumors – Part II

Michael Hohnadel

March 2004

Kaposi s sarcoma l.jpg
Kaposi’s Sarcoma

Five Presentations:

1. Classic

  • Middle aged, European men

  • Red, violaceous nodules on toes or soles.

  • Coalesce to form plaques. Brawny edema

  • Later more widespread involvement esp soft palate. Periods of remission/involution.

    2. African Cutaneous

  • Nodular infiltrating vascular masses of extremities

  • Men 20-50 yrs. Endemic to Africa.

  • Locally aggressive.

  • Massive edema of legs and bone involvement.

Kaposi s sarcoma3 l.jpg
Kaposi’s Sarcoma

3. African Lymphadenopathic

  • Lymph nodes with/without skin in children <10.

  • Fatal in < 2years.

    4. AIDS

  • Violaceous macules progress to papules, nodules and plaques.

  • Head, neck, trunk and mucous membranes.

    5. Lymphoma / immunosuppressive TX.

    Resembles classic but more variable presentation.

Kaposi s sarcoma4 l.jpg
Kaposi’s Sarcoma

Classic Variety.

Kaposi s sarcoma5 l.jpg
Kaposi’s Sarcoma

HIV Associated.

Kaposi s sarcoma7 l.jpg
Kaposi’s Sarcoma

  • Internal Involvement

    • G.I. Tract is site of internal involvement esp the small intestine.

    • Skeletal changes are diagnostic

      • Rarefaction, cyst, cortical erosion

    • In AIDS:

      • 25% cutaneous alone,

      • 29% viscous alone.

      • Ultimately, 70% will have viscous involvement of G.I. (50%), lungs (37%) or Lymph nodes (50%)

Kaposi s sarcoma8 l.jpg
Kaposi’s Sarcoma

  • Etiopathogenesis

    • Proliferation of abnormal vascular endothelial cells.

    • Muliticentric origin

    • HHV-8 is strongly assoc. and predictive of K.S. in HIV infected individuals.

  • Histology

    • Large endothelial cells of capillaries protrude into lumen like buds.

    • Lesions with proliferation of capillaries and fibrosarcoma like tissue in varying proportions.

    • Late lesions: spindle cell proliferation with sarcoma like properties.

Kaposi s sarcoma9 l.jpg
Kaposi’s Sarcoma

Early lesion with dilated thin walled vascular vessels with protruding endothelial cells.

Kaposi s sarcoma10 l.jpg
Kaposi’s Sarcoma

Later, ‘hemangioma- like’ lesion.

Kaposi s sarcoma11 l.jpg
Kaposi’s Sarcoma

  • Treatment:

    • Radiation. (all types are responsive)

    • For individual lesions: cryotherapy, vincristine, excision, laser ablation. Alitretinoin applied 2-4 times daily.

    • Systemic chemotherapy if >10 lesions / month or symptomatic visceral involvement.

    • Resistance to single chemo agents over time so combo with other modalities.

  • Course: Usually progresses slowly and is rarely the cause of death. (except African cutaneous variety.

Slide12 l.jpg

Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma

  • Solitary, slow growing papule on the extremities. Intermediate between angiosarcoma and hemangioma.

  • M>F. Frequently before age of 25 years.

  • Rare.

  • Histology: Dilated vascular channels, spindle cells.

  • TX: Wide excision with evaluation of regional nodes. 20-30% 2 year mortality.

Slide13 l.jpg

Spindle cell Hemangioendothelioma

  • Child or young adult with Multifocal occurance of firm, blue nodules on extremity

  • Rare. May recur when excised.

    Retiform Hemangioendothelioma

  • Low grade angiosarcoma. Slow growing exophytic mass sub-Q nodule or even a plaque.

  • Rare

  • Extremities of young adults

  • Wide excision. Nodes may be affected locally but no deaths reported due to Mets.

Angiosarcoma l.jpg

4 Clinical settings:

1.) Head and neck tumor of elderly

  • F:M = ratio 2:1

  • Ill defined bluish nodule resembles a bruise often with an erythematous ring. Satellite nodules, bleeding are common.

  • TX: Complete excision with radiation.

  • Multicentric nature and rapid metastasis usually results in death in two years.

    2.) In area of chronic lyphedema.

  • Classically after mastectomy (Stewart-Treves)

  • Appears 10 years after surgery in 0.45 % of pts.

  • Mets to lungs = death in 19-31 months. (6% -5 year)

Angiosarcoma15 l.jpg

3.) Previously irradiated sites

  • Interval of tumor development depends on nature of lesion for which radiation was given:

    • Benign – 23 years to develop.

    • Malignant – 12 years.

  • Prognosis: death in 6-24 months.

    4.) Miscellaneous subset.

Angiosarcoma17 l.jpg

Infiltration of the dermis by ill-defined vascular spaces and hyperchromatic, atypical endothelial cells. Factor VIII staining is positive.

Fibrous tissue abnormalities l.jpg
Fibrous Tissue Abnormalities


  • Firm, irregularly shaped, fibrous excrescence usually at a site of previous trauma. Claw-like projections overgrow wound boundary.

  • May occur at any body site. Most common site - sternal.

  • Histopathology: Growth of myofibroblast and collagen in the dermis with a whirl like arrangement of hyalinized bundles of collagen. There is a paucity of elastic tissue and thinning of the overlying papillary dermis.

  • DDX: Hypertrophic scar- No claw like extensions. Stays in wound boundaries. Often improves in 6 mo.

  • TX: Intralesional kenalog 20-40 mg/cc. Lasers. Excision with intralesional injections. Silicone sheeting.

Keloids l.jpg

Hypertrophic Scar at 5 months and 1 year

Keloids21 l.jpg

Hypertrophic Scar



Dupuytren s contracture l.jpg
Dupuytren’s Contracture

  • Fibromatosis of the palmar aponeurosis. Plantar Fibromatosis is seen on soles.

  • Men 30-50 years. Multiple firm nodules in the palm, 1 cm in diameter, proximal to the 4th finger. Contractures develop with time.

  • Associations: Alcoholic cirrhosis, DM, epilepsy, plantar fibromatosis, Peyronies dx. Familiar predispositions.

  • TX: Early intralesional Triamcinolone, Surgery.

Knuckle pads l.jpg
Knuckle Pads

  • Well defined, round, plaque-like fibrous thickenings that develop over the proximal interphalangeal joints on toes and fingers.

  • May become 10-15mm in diameter and persist permanently. Remain freely mobile.

  • Assoc with Dupuytren’s contractures and some autosomal dominate familial cases have been reported.

  • Histology: Fibromas

  • TX: intralesional steroids.

Peyronie s disease l.jpg
Peyronie’s Disease

  • Fibrous infiltration of intercavernous septum of the penis results in nodules and plaques. A fibrous chordee is produced with curvature of the on erection.

  • Assoc with Dupuytren’s contractor

  • TX: Intralesional Triamcinolone may be curative.

Peyronie s disease27 l.jpg
Peyronie’s Disease

As Dr. Ladd would say: ‘Something just ain’t right…..’

Desmoid tumor l.jpg
Desmoid Tumor

  • Deep seated well circumscribed mass arising from muscular aponeurosis.

  • Most common on abdominal wall esp. in women during or after pregnancy.

  • May be fatal if invade or compress vital structures. Most dangerous are those of neck and intra-abdominal

  • TX: MRI to evaluate extent of tumor. Excision.

Slide29 l.jpg

Aponeourotic Fibroma

  • Juvenile aponeurotic fibroma.

  • Slow growing cyst-like masses occurring on the limbs.

  • X-ray reveals Stippled calcification.

    Congenital Generalized Fibromatosis

  • Multiple firm dermal and subdermal nodules presenting at near birth.

  • 2 types of involvement:

    • Dermal and Skeletal (metaphyseal) – resolution 2 yrs.

    • Involvement of viscera - 80% mortality. If live past 4 mo. then regression.

Slide30 l.jpg

Infantile Digital Fibromatosis

  • Asymptomatic, firm, red, 1 cm. diameter nodules on DIP of fingers or toes during the first year of life. No metastasis.

  • Whorled fascicles of spindle cells eosinophilic inclusion bodies

  • Surgical excision has high recurrence.

  • TX: Observation, hope for spontaneous resolution.

Infantile digital fibromatosis l.jpg
Infantile Digital Fibromatosis

Whorled fascicles of spindle cells

Eosinophilic inclusion bodies

Slide32 l.jpg

  • Fibrous Harmartoma of infancy

    • Single dermal or sub-q nodule of upper trunk present at birth.

    • Excision.

  • Fibomatosis Colli

    • Fibrous proliferation infiltration sternocleidomastoid m. at birth.

    • Spontaneous remission in a few months.

  • Diffuse Infantile Fibromatosis

    • Multicentric fibrous infiltration of m. of arms, neck and shoulder area.

Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath l.jpg
Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath

  • Firm 1-3 cm. nodule attaches to tendons of fingers hand and wrist (esp flexor).

  • Histopathology:

    • Lobules of densely hyalinized collagen. Giant cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and variable nuclei.

  • TX

    • Excision. Recurs in 25%.

Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath34 l.jpg
Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath

Sheets of epithelioid histiocytes with a

variable number of the characteristic

multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells. Some of the histiocytes may have pale foamy cytoplasm.

Ainhum l.jpg

  • Linear constriction occurs around the toes (esp 5th at PIP) eventually resulting spontaneous amputation in 5-10 years. Begins as grove on flexor surface and joins over time.

  • African Men.

  • Etiology: Unknown. (Trauma?)

  • TX: Surgery sometimes helpful. Intralesional steroids.

  • Pseudo-Ainhum: Hereditary and nonhereditary diseases associated with annular constriction.

Connective tissue nevi l.jpg
Connective Tissue Nevi

  • Multiple or solitary plaques 1-15 cm in diameter, yellow to light orange with a shagreen leather like surface texture.

    • Predilection for lumbosacral area.

  • Acquired type: eruptive collagenoma, isolated collagenoma and isolated elastoma

  • Congenital Types:

    • 1.) Buschke – Ollendorf: AD. Widespread asymmetrically distributed plaques. Osteopoikilosis of long bones is diagnostic.

Connective tissue nevi39 l.jpg
Connective Tissue Nevi


  • 2.) Familial cutaneous collagenomas: Numerous symmetrical asymptomatic nodules on back. Onset in teens. MEN-I assoc.

  • In tuberous sclerosis, connective tissue nevi are shagreen patches.

    • ½ of T.S. cases are new mutations so any pt with connective tissue nevi should be evaluated for tuberous sclerosis.

  • Angiofibromas l.jpg

    Fibrous and vascular proliferation of upper dermis

    Common types:

    • Fibrous papule of the nose – 3-6 mm diameter, dome shaped sessile papule with white to reddish color. Usually solitary.

    • Pearly Penile Papule – Pearly white papules appearing on the coronal margin and sometimes on penile shaft. No TX required

    • Multiple hereditary forms - adenoma sebaceum (Tuberous Sclerosis) and in MEN-I

    Angiofibromas42 l.jpg

    Fibrous papule of the nose

    Pearly Penile Papule

    Acral fibrokeratoma l.jpg
    Acral Fibrokeratoma

    • Pink, hyperkeratotic, hornlike projection on fingers (most common) toes or palms. Emerges from a collarette of scale.

    • Average age 40.

    • TX: excision. Laser ablation.

    Subungal exostosis l.jpg
    Subungal Exostosis

    • Solitary, fibrous and bony nodule protruding from the distal edge of the nail, most commonly of the great toe.

      • Begins as a pink papule which destroys overlying nail and grows to a maximum diameter of 8 mm.

    • Pressure causes great pain.

    • X-ray is diagnostic

    • TX: excision and curettage.

    Chondrodermatits nodularis chronica helicis l.jpg
    Chondrodermatits Nodularis Chronica Helicis

    • Small, tender, inflammatory nodule with gently sloping sides located on the outer helix. Common in older men. No malignant potential.

    • Often hx of chronic trauma. Lesions are very painful. Pt often complains of pain when sleeps on lesion.

    • Histology: Degeneration of collagen with acanthosis and hyperkeratosis and thinning of epidermis.

    • TX: Excision. Often a spicule of cartilage is discovered. (Transdermal elimination).

    Acrocordon l.jpg

    • Flesh colored, pigmented sessile or pedunculated papillomas.

    • Areas: eyelids, axilla, neck, groin.

    • 60 % incidence by the age of 69.

    • Treatment: excision.

    Dermatofibroma l.jpg

    • Lesion which grows slowly to a firm, 4-20 mm diameter papule or nodule, yellow or reddish brown in color and then stops expanding. Sharply demarcated. Chiefly located on lower extremities.

    • ‘Dimple sign’. Seldom seen in children. May grow to 5 cm in size.

    • Etiology: Trauma, bites ?

    • Histology: Dermal mass or whorled fibrous tissue. Numerous cells with large nuclei and spindle cells. Some very atypical cells referred to as ‘Monster cells’.

    • TX: Reassurance. Progressive enlargement warrants excision.

    Dermatofibroma52 l.jpg

    Nodular proliferation of spindled fibroblasts and histiocytes in the reticular dermis, with hyperplasia and hyperpigmentation of the overlying epidermis. There is extension into the subcutaneous tissue in a radial pattern (arrow).

    The fibroblasts are arranged in broad intersecting fascicles with entrapment of thick collagen bundles

    Dermatofibroma53 l.jpg

    Monster Cells

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans l.jpg
    Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans

    • On a middle aged PT, a slowly enlarging, erythematous, firm nodule or plaque often with purulence appears on the trunk (60%). Pain is more prominent with as lesion grows and may be severe.

      • Early lesions resemble keloids or large DF.

    • Histology: Subepidermal fibrotic plaque with uniform spindle cells. Cartwheel pattern of spindle cells surrounding collagen. Pigment cells = Bednar tumor in dark skinned individuals. CD 34 positive.

    • TX: Mohs (2% recurrence) or wide excision (11-50%) recurrence.

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans56 l.jpg
    Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans

    Characteristic multilayered pattern of infiltration into the subcutaneous tissue

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans57 l.jpg
    Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans

    Spindle-shaped cells are arranged in a ‘storiform’ pattern.

    Nodular fasciitis l.jpg
    Nodular Fasciitis

    • Deep, firm, solitary, sometimes tender nodule of deep fascia that rapidly grows to 1-4 cm in diameter over several weeks. Pt is otherwise healthy and average age is 40 years.

    • Variants: Dermal, intravascular and proliferating.

    • Histology: myxoid, fibroblastic and capillary proliferation. Lymphocytic-histiocytic infiltration.

    • TX: complete excision. Intralesional steroids.

    Nodular fasciitis60 l.jpg
    Nodular Fasciitis

    Spindle-shaped and stellate fibroblasts are loosely arranged in a myxomatous stroma, with some cells in mitosis

    Atypical fibroxanthoma l.jpg
    Atypical Fibroxanthoma

    • Small, firm nodule often with eroded surface.

    • Usually occurs on sun exposed locations on the head and neck, Caucasians >50 yrs. old.

      • A subset occurs in 25% of patients where the tumor is located on covered area in person approx 40 yrs old.

    • Histology: Bizarre spindle cells (vesicular nucleus) and atypical histiocytes with mitotic cells, eosinophilic nuclei and biphasic cell population.

    • TX: Surgical excision. Recurrence is frequent and MOHS offers best cure rate. Possible metastasis in rare cases.

    Atypical fibroxanthoma63 l.jpg
    Atypical Fibroxanthoma

    • The spindle cells have pale foamy cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei with small nucleoli. There is also a large atypical giant cell with darker nuclear chromatin as well as a cell in atypical mitosis.

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma l.jpg
    Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma

    • Most common soft tissue sarcoma of middle age and late adulthood. Resembles DFSP.

    • Progressively enlarging, 1-3 cm diameter, protruding, tumor with a reddish or dusky

      • 1/3 on thigh or buttocks. Peak incidence in 7th decade.

      • Association with radiodermatitis and chronic ulcers.

    • Histology: Polygonal and spindle cells with large bizarre multinucleated types. Pleomorphic cellular elements and bizarre mitotic figures.

    • TX: Excision. Recurrence in 25 % of cases. Metastasis in 35%. Overall survival of 50%

    • Prognosis: Deeper and proximal = poorer prognosis. Assoc with radiodermatitis = esp poor prognosis

    Epithelioid sarcoma l.jpg
    Epithelioid Sarcoma

    • Tumor of the extremities (half on hands) of young men (2/3 of cases), ages 20-40 years.

    • Slow growing tumor among fascial structures and tendons with nodules and overlying ulceration.

      • DDX: G.A. fibroma, EIC, ganglion, SSC.

    • HX: Acidophilic polygonal cells merging with spindle cells and hyalinized collagen.

    • TX: Wide local excision in early disease. Recurrence in 3 of 4 cases. Late mets in 45%

    Epithelioid sarcoma67 l.jpg
    Epithelioid Sarcoma

    Epithelioid cells are palisaded around an area of necrosis.

    Myxomas l.jpg

    2 types:

    1.) Digital Mucous cyst.

    • Taut, shiny translucent white or pink dome shaped lesions typically located distal to the DIP joint. Often with accompanying grooving and dystrophy of the associated nail.

    • Focal accumulations of mucin without a true lining.

    • Etiology: Assoc with joint space and forms by extrusion of jt. space mucin? Independent of jt. space?

    • TX: Drain, Excision. Intralesional steroids.

    Myxomas70 l.jpg

    2.) Cutaneous Myxomas

    • Solitary of multiple flesh colored nodules of the trunk, face or extremities.

    • Syndromes: Carney (Also called: NAME, LAMB ect.)

      • Autosomal dominate inheritance

    • Carney syndrome (2+ of following)

      • Cardiac Atrial Myxoma (79%) Can be life threatening.

      • Cutaneous myxomas (45%) <1 cm flesh colored papules which develop by the age of 18 and occur on ears, eyelids and nipples.

      • Mammary myxoid fibromas (30%)

      • Spotty mucocutaneous pigmentation (blue nevi) (65%)

      • Prim. Pig. Nodular adrenocortical disease. (45%)

      • Testicular tumors (56%)

      • Pituitary G.H. secreting tumors. (10%)