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The History of India A Timeline of Events. Katelyn D. February 3,2009 Asia/Africa Case Studies. Indus Valley Civilization.

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the history of india a timeline of events

The History of IndiaA Timeline of Events

Katelyn D.

February 3,2009

Asia/Africa Case Studies

indus valley civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
  • The Indus region was not discovered until 1920’s, but it is said that this civilization flourished around 2600 to 1700 BCE in the western part of South Asia. This region had the largest of the four ancient urban civilizations, which consisted of Egypt, Mesopotamia, South Asia and China. The Indus people were able to build and form a rather complex society for their time. Their writings are still unable to be depicted, but archeologist have been able to find out a lot about these Indus people from their paintings, drawings, poetry, and other ancient artifacts that they have left behind.
rule under the british
Rule Under the British
  • In 1858 India was brought under the direct rule of the British crown. India was brought under this direct rule when it failed Indian mutiny. “British India,” and the rule of British control over India originally came from the East Indian Company in India, which took the form of the Presidencies of British India. This was territory on the Indian subcontinent was under the possession of the company. After the Indian Rebellion took place, that is when the British Crown formally took control way from the company and under their British rule. The British stayed in control until India gained independence in 1947.
the great famine
The Great Famine
  • The Great Famine last for two years, starting in 1876 and ending in 1878. This famine effected both south and southwestern India, and during the second year of the famine it also effected north regions. The famine ended up covering an area of 257,000 square miles in India. This famine took place while India was under British rule. This famine was an example that British imperialism was not a good thing for India because the British government would not intervene in helping the famine because they believed in capitalism, which meant that government should stay out of way of the market and individual production. They felt that it was not their problem to fix. Crop production dropped drastically which led to this famine, and led to the deaths of thousands of people.
mahatma gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
  • It was in his return to India in 1915, and all the way to his death in 1948 that Gandhi was a major political and spiritual leader of India. He was also the major leader in the Indian independence movement. He wanted non-violence for India, and during this time end India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. He would lead nationwide campaigns trying to easy poverty, increase economic self-reliance, and fight for the rights of women. And among many other accomplishments, he led an anti-British civil disobedience campaign, which in years to come will lead to an independent India. He really was an amazing person and a major political figure for India. He was unfortunately assassinated on January 30, 1948 on one of his nightly walks. He lived a simple life, and was just trying to make peace and bring India together.
independence of india
Independence of India
  • Acquired independence on August 15, 1947
  • The indecency of India began to be laid out when the Government instituted the Government India Act of 1935, which was the gradual emergence of India becoming its own self-governing unit.
  • Although at the time when India gained independence in 1947, some sections of the country had been carved out to form a new country which we know today as Pakistan.
the india pakistan wars
The India Pakistan Wars

The India Pakistan wars first started shortly after India gained its independency in 1947. The first Indo-Pakistani conflict was between 1947-1948, at this time the Indo military had been called to protect its borders of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The Pathans tribal people attack from the northwest and reached Kashmir on October 22, 1947. Conflicts led into the spring of 1948, and the Indian government sought out for the United Nations for mediation of the conflict. With the mediation of the United Nations, it brought the war to an end on January 1, 1949. When all was said and done 1,500 soldiers died on each side while the war took place.

The second Indo-Pakistani conflict took place in 1965, and like the first conflict this war was fought over Kashmir and started without formal declaration of war. Shortly after the war started India gained a great victory by capturing three major mountain positions in the northern sector. Pakistan counterattacked which moved concentrations into other areas, but this just led to powerful Indian forces taking more important mountain positions leading them to take the key HajiPir Pass, eight kilometers inside Pakistani territory.

- Main issue: conflict and disputes over Kashmir

the friendship treaty
The Friendship Treaty
  • In 1971 India signed a Twenty-year treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union. Not only friendship, but also cooporation and peace. Articles 8, 9, and 10 of the treaty said the parties were "to abstain from providing any assistance to any third party that engages in armed conflict with the other" and "in the event of either party being subjected to an attack or threat thereof . . . to immediately enter into mutual consultations.” A huge benefit for India that came out of this was when they got the support from the Soviet Union on the position on Bangladesh.
declaration of emergency
Declaration of Emergency
  • During the time span of 1975-1977, about 1,000 political opponents were imprisoned
  • Those who opposed Mrs. Gandhi and her party were put into prison, there were hundreds of them. This was put into action by the Internal Security Act. People arrested included JP Narayan, Raj Narain, JyortimoyBasu (communist party-Marxist), Samar Guha (president of the Jana Sangha, who were all very well-known leaders, and it made newspaper headlines when they were taken into custody.
huge gas leak in india
Huge Gas Leak in India

In 1984, on a December night, on of the worst industrial accidents in history took place in Bhopal, India. A tank containing (MIC) methyl isocyanate leaked out at the Union Carbide pesticide plant. The plant was first built to make pesticides locally to help with farming production. When water leaked into the tank that contained 40 tons of MIC, the water caused the tank to heat up which led to the major gas leak. An estimated 27 tons of MIC gas escaped and most people were asleep when the leak first took place. People woke up to the coughing of their children or found themselves chocking on the fumes. The gas left people cocking, coughing, their eyes and throats burning from the fumes, and some people dropped to their floors in great amounts of pain. This is such an important event to recognize because an estimated 5,000- 8,000 people died from immediate exposure to the gas, two decades after about 20,000 additional people have died from the damages they received from the gas, and another 120,000 people live daily with the effects from the gas. Effects include anything from blindness, shortness of breath, cancer, birth defects, and other various diseases.

devastating cyclone
Devastating Cyclone
  • In 1999 a devastating cyclone hit the eastern coast of India. Hundreds of people were killed from this disaster and at least ten million people were affected in Orissa state. It was said that Orissa's telecommunications system collapsed in 160-mile-per-hour winds. The roads were ruined, and it left 10 districts isolated from the region from the rest of India. This disaster greatly affected both the land and the people around the coast. It took a great amount of time to repair the damages and to try to place people back into their homes.
mosque in ayodhya demolished
Mosque in Ayodhya Demolished
  • In 1992 Hindu militants attacked Muslim targets all around the North Indian town of Ayodhya and tore down the mosque. It was stated in the BBC News as, “one of India’s worst outbreaks of inter-communal violence.” Three right-wing Hindu groups started the gathering at the mosque as an organizes religious procession. The campaign for the mosque to be taken down had been going on for decades, it was a focus for Hindu-Muslim hostility for years. In stead of having the mosque there these extremists wanted to build a Hindu temple in its place, to honor the place where they believe Lord Ram was born, the Hindu warrior king.
2000 year of growth
2000 Year of Growth
  • In the year 2000, India reached the birth of 1 billion citizens. This was a big mark for the growth of India because it shows that India is growing and expanding, not only in population but also in economic growth. India has now become a “hot spot” in the world and part of BRIC, which are the four hugely important economic powers.
  • Also in the year 2000 President Bill Clinton went to visit India to improve relations between the United States and India. He wanted to warm things up between the two countries and establish a political and economical partnership that both countries desire to have.
rocket launch
Rocket Launch
  • In 2001 India’s Agni missiles were launched, and high-powered rockets were launched as well and this marked the stage where India could now join other countries in sending big satellites deep into space. Again, marking that India has now grown into a high power country. This also shows that India’s military and technology has expanded and improved over the years.
india s seat on the un security council
India’s Seat on the UN Security Council
  • In September 2004 India launched an application to have a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council. India made this request along with Brazil, Germany and Japan.
mumbai capital of finance attacks
Mumbai Capital of Finance& Attacks
  • Mumbai is India’s financial capital. But because of its prominence as India’s financial capital it has made it a target for terrorist violence. On November 26,2008, the first attack happened when a terrorist fired an AK-47 in the TajMahal Palace hotel. There was a series of ten attacks and the attacks went on for three days. Over 170 people were killed, and over 300 people were injured. It is said that these attacks were led by a Pakistan-based Islamic terrorist group. The Indian Government says that the attackers were from Pakistan, a country they have battled with numerous times before. These attacks not only effected the Indian citizens of the city, but these terrorists were targeting Americans and British people who were there at the time.