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Muon Accelerator R&D 5-year Plan (as background information for the MANX review). Andreas Jansson. Outline. Overview of the Muon Accelerator R&D 5-year plan 6D cooling channel component R&D and experiments in the 5-year plan Summary & Conclusions. Overview of the.

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Muon accelerator r d 5 year plan as background information for the manx review

Muon Accelerator R&D 5-year Plan(as background information for the MANX review)

Andreas Jansson

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review


  • Overview of the Muon Accelerator R&D 5-year plan

  • 6D cooling channel component R&D and experiments in the 5-year plan

  • Summary & Conclusions

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Muon accelerator r d 5 year plan

Overview of the

Muon Accelerator R&D5-year plan

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

U s muon accelerator r d community
U.S. Muon Accelerator R&D Community

 In the U.S. Muon Collider & Neutrino Factory R&D is pursued by a collab-oration of accelerator scientists, particle physicists & engineers from laboratories, universities, and SBIR companies:

  • Sponsoring U.S. Labs (~30 FTE)


  • Other U.S. Labs (~2 FTE)


  • U.S. Universities (~5 FTE)

    • IIT, Mississippi, Princeton, UC-Berkeley, UCLA, UC-Riverside

  • SBIR Companies (~10 FTE)

    • Muons Inc., Tech X, PBL



~ 4 7 FTE

  • Other institutions have made past contributions but are not presently supported: U-Chicago, Cornell, NIU, Northwestern, UIUC

  • In addition, Neutrino Factory R&D has been “internationalized” (see later)

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review


  • NFMCC (Neutrino Factory & Muon Collider Collab.)

    • National collaboration funded since 1998.

    • Pursues Neutrino Factory & Muon Collider R&D.

    • NF R&D pursued with international partners

  • MCTF (Muon Collider Task Force)

    • Task Force established at Fermilab in 2006

    • Pursues Muon Collider R&D, utilizing FNAL assets and extends & complements the NFMCC program

  • MCCC (Muon Collider Co-ordinating Committee)

    • Leadership of NFMCC (Bross, Kirk, Zisman) and MCTF (Geer, Shiltsev)

    • Co-ordinates NFMCC & MCTF plans to optimize the overall program … has worked well and resulted in a joint 5 year plan for future activities.

  • MUTAC (Muon Technical Advisory Committee)

    • Appointed by the multi-Lab oversight group (MCOG)

    • Reviews NFMCC & MCTF activities jointly

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Motivation lepton colliders
Motivation: Lepton Colliders

  • The capabilities of high energy lepton colliders have captured the imagination of the HEP community:

    • elucidate EWK symmetery breaking mechanism

    • search for (discover) supersymmetry

    • search for (discover) extra space-time dimensions & quantum gravity

  • Studies have motivated lepton colliders with multi-TeV energies and luminosities of order 1034 cm-2 s-1.

    • LHC results on a timescale of ~2013 are expected to establish desired lepton collider energy.

    • P5 recommended “ … R&D for alternative accelerator technologies, to permit an informed choice when the lepton collider energy is established.”

  • Alternatives for a multi-TeV lepton collider are:

    • Muon Colliders

    • Normal-Conducting RF e+e- linacs (NLC-like, CLIC, … )

    • Plasma wakefield linacs driven by lasers or short e- bunches.

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Muon collider advantages
Muon Collider Advantages

  • Muon Collider concept is attractive because muons are point-like particles that do not radiate as readily as electrons (mm / me ~ 207):

    • Circular (compact) multi-TeV lepton collider that would fit on an existing laboratory site.

    • Very small beam energyspread enabling precise scans and width measurements

  • (mm/me)2 = ~40000  s-channel Higgs Factory (requires lower luminosity)

EXAMPLE4 TeV Collider on the FNAL site

Beamstrahlung in anye+e- collider

E/E  2

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Muon collider schematic
Muon Collider Schematic

Muon Collider parameterranges (depend on LHC results)

  • Proton Driver

    • primary beam on target

  • Target, Capture, and Decay

    • create ; decay into 

  • Bunching & Phase Rotation

    • reduce E of bunch

  • Cooling

    • reduce 6D emittance

  • Acceleration

    • 130 MeV  O (1) TeV

  • Storage Ring

    • store for ~1000 turns

4 MWProtonSource

s: 1-5 TeV

L: 1034–1035 cm-2 s-1

eT: 10-25 mm

eL: ~10 cm

Dp/p: 0.001-0.002

b*: 3-10 mm



Decay Channel




Initial Cooling

6D Cooler

4 TeV Collider

~ 4 km

Pre Accel


Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Neutrino factory
Neutrino Factory

  • A muon source providing O(1021) muons/yr would also facilitate a new sort of neutrino source in which muons decaying in a storage ring with long straight sections produce a beam of 50% ne (anti- ne) & 50% nm (anti- nm)

4 MWProtonSource




Decay Channel



Initial Cooler



~ 1 km

Pre Accel


5-10 GeV


1.5-5 GeV

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Front end progress last 5 years
Front-End Progress – last 5 years

Rapid development of plans

for multi-MW proton sources:

FNAL: Project-X

CERN: Linac 4, SPL …

RAL: ISIS upgrade


Project-X at FNAL with

suitable modificationswould be a viable


4 MWProtonSource

Successful completion of

MERIT proof-of-principleHg-jet target experiment



MUCOOL Test area built. Limitations of High-gradient RF in magnetc fields identified. Candidate RF options for RF in ionization cooling channels identified – development in progress.

Decay Channel


MICE experiment has begun – to be completed 2011-2012


1021 muons/yr

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Component development experiments
Component Development & Experiments

MICE Experiment under way

at RAL: Ionization Cooling Channel proof-of-principle

MUCOOL Test Area builtat FNAL for ionization cooling component testing

MERIT at CERN: Hg-jet in 15T solenoid, hit by 31013 24 GeV protons

New beamline built at FNAL to

test high-pressure RF concept

for muon cooling channels

NFMCC 805 MHz and 201 MHz RF studies in magnetic fields to develop needed capability for muon cooling channels

High-field Magnet

Studies for muon cooling channels

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Muon collider design progress
Muon Collider Design Progress

  • Muon Collider designs start with a NF front-end, but require a much more ambitious cooling channel (6D cooling ~ O(106) c.f. 4D cooling ~ O(10).

  • In the last 5 years concepts for a complete end-to-end self con-sistent cooling scheme have been developed

    • Requires beyond state-of-art components: need to be developed

    • Hardware development and further simulations need to proceed together to inform choices between alternative technologies

  • Also progress on acceleration scheme & Collider ring design, but the cooling channel presently provides the main Muon Collider challenge




Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Next steps strategy
Next Steps: Strategy

  • MC strategy presented to P5 to bring the high energy frontier back to the U.S.

    • study to demonstrate MC feasibility by 2013

    • post-study experiments and component test for 7-10 years

    • Start MC construction early to mid 2020’s

  • In parallel with MC R&D, the medium term NF development plan presented to P5:

    • Complete MICE experiment & participate in International Design Study (IDS) to deliver a NF-RDR by 2012

    • If community wishes to proceed, preconstruction R&D for a few years beyond 2012, with an option to start construction in the late 2010’s

  • MCOG and MUTAC encouraged the NFMCC & MCTF leadership to develop a joint 5 year plan that proposes the way forward for the period FY09-13

  • This plan was submitted to DOE in December ’08.

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

The 5 year plan
The 5 Year Plan

  • A joint NFMCC-MCTF Plan

    • A measured program based on the solid muon accelerator R&D achievements of the last decade

    • Sufficiently ambitious to make substantial progress before the next round of long-term decisions by the particle physics community

    • Includes accelerator, physics & detector studies (funding for physics & detector part sought separately)

  • Meets our existing commitments (NF-RDR, MICE) and in addition will deliver:

    • MC performance requirements based on physics

    • A first end-to-end MC simulation

    • Critical component development & testing

    • A first MC cost estimate

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Elements of the mc r d plan
Elements of the MC R&D Plan





















sponsoring laboratory participation

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Elements of the plan 2
Elements of the Plan - 2

  • Design and Simulations

    • MC DFS (Design Feasibility Study)

      • Physics and Detector Study

      • Accelerator Design & Simulation

      • Cost Estimation Study

    • NF RDR (under IDS-NF auspices)

      • overall system design and staging scenarios

      • siting issues

      • participation in cost estimation activity

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Elements of the plan 3
Elements of the Plan - 3

  • Component Development and Experiments

    • carry out hardware development & perform tests to “inform” MC DFS & NF RDR

      • facilitate down-selection of MC cooling channel options

      • complete MICE

    • includes ongoing work

      • RF testing, magnet development, absorbers, target

        • understand performance limits, engineering issues, costs

    • hardware R&D has been carefully selected

      • plan only includes activities needed to assess feasibility & make 1st defensible cost estimate.

    • defines subsequent experimental program (extends beyond 5-yr plan)

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Expected mc status after plan

Key component models

Expected MC Status after Plan

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review


Resources needed to execute the 5 year plan

NOW 1 2 3 4 5


NOW 1 2 3 4 5


NOTE: Roll-over in years 4-5 provides an opportunity to initiate post-DFS

activities, should the community wish us to proceed to the next step

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Contributions fte


1 2 3 4 5


Contributions (FTE)

  • Proposed effort profile (FTEs) for muon accelerator R&D:

Based on input from the lab management

  • Universities ~ 5FTE, Other Labs ~ 2FTE. NOTE: In addition there are ~ 10FTE SBIR.

  • Includes SBIR, Universities, Other Labs, & additional engineering effort from BNL+FNAL+LBNL or external contracts (with M&S vs SWF adjustment)

  • Includes post-5-year plan activities

  • Utilization of Effort

    • 5-year plan activitiesdominate years 1-4

    • Start post-plan R&D in years 4-5 if community wishes to proceed to next step

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Experiments in the 5 year plan

Cooling channel component R&D and

Experiments In the 5-year plan

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review


  • During the next 5 years, we expect MICE will demonstrate transverse (4D) cooling.

  • MICE is essentially a section of NF study II prototype cooling channel.

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

6d cooling channel status
6D Cooling Channel Status

  • Three main types (and many variants) of 6D cooling channel have been proposed, and shown to cool in simulation.

  • They all require RF cavities operating in strong magnetic fields.

    • This is currently our biggest challenge





FOFO snake


Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

The e max b problem
The Emax(B) problem

  • Vacuum RF suffers significant reduction in stable gradient in magnetic fields

  • High Pressure RF is not sensitive to magnetic fields, but have not yet been tested with beam.

(Muons Inc/Fermilab)

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

The path to a cooling channel demo
The path to a cooling channel demo

  • Highest priority is to demonstrate at least one RF cavity technology that can operate in strong magnetic fields

    • This will allow us to narrow down the cooling channel options and focus our efforts

    • Expect to select a baseline cooling channel about halfway through the plan (year 3).

RF test

Section test

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Some possible 6d cooling experiments
Some possible 6D cooling experiments

MICE rebuilt as FOFO snake (Alexahin)

MANX w LHe, no RF (Muons Inc)

Mag. ins. Guggenheim section (Palmer)

HCC w. HP H2 RF (Palmer)

LiH wedge as MICE phase III (Rogers)

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Some different points of view
Some different points of view

“There might be bugs in the simulation code or subtle effects that may accumulate and affect a long cooling channel.”

“Multiple scattering and Maxwell’s equations are well known since a long time. It will work if we can just build it.”

“Demonstrating 6D cooling is important to generate optimism about the Muon Collider.”

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

R d goals
R&D goals

  • Goals of experimental cooling channel R&D and experiments can in general be classified as

    • Demonstrate that we can create the simulated conditions in reality.

    • Experimentally validate simulation codes and models.

    • Demonstrate cooling.

  • Note that

    • If A and B are achieved, in principle this implies C.

    • Achieving C does not imply B (or A).

  • Main focus in 5-year plan is on Goal A.

    • This can be achieved with bench tests (no beam)

    • MICE will do Goal C for 4D cooling, and might be able to do some of Goal B (to be determined).

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Goals of a 6d cooling experiment
Goals of a 6D cooling experiment?

  • Demonstrate 6D cooling in a short cooling channel section (emittance out < emittance out) (c.f. Goal C)

    • Great PR and probably political pre-requisite for building a long cooling channel (and MC).

    • Experimental method straightforward (developed by MICE).

  • Convince ourselves that the results extrapolate to long cooling channels (c.f. Goal B)

    • Main uncertainties are energy straggling and scattering tails.

    • These effects may be very difficult to measure with sufficient accuracy in a cooling channel section (needs further study).

  • A lot of the early preparatory work is generic and can be done without locking in on a particular experiment.

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

Summary conclusions
Summary & Conclusions

  • A 5-year plan for Muon Accelerator R&D has been developed and submitted to DOE

    • Aims to deliver a MC Design Feasibility Study in ~2013, including an end-to-simulation of the baseline scenario

    • Requires x3 increase in Muon R&D budget, as well as all the manpower we expect to get from the labs (and then some).

  • Experimental program focused on enabling down-selection of cooling channel options, and provide other input needed to select a baseline collider scenario.

    • Highest priority is to solve the E(B) problem, then proceed to build a section of baseline cooling channel for bench tests.

    • A 6D cooling experiment would follow after the 5 years.

    • Generic studies on how to best measure 6D cooling encouraged now.

    • More detailed planning on cooling experiment after a baseline is selected (money may start to become available at that time as well).

    • If we are clever, the bench test model might become the test channel.

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review



NF timeline


in ISS



MC timelinepresented to P5 (Palmer)

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review

A muon based vision

RLA Linac 2




Muon Collider

RLA Linac 1

Project X

-factory beam



Final Cooling

A Muon-Based Vision

Andreas Jansson - Fermilab AAC review