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World War I. Making the Peace. Chp. 14 section 5 pp. 388-391. Setting the Scene*.

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chp 14 section 5 pp 388 391

World War I

Making the Peace

Chp. 14 section 5 pp. 388-391

slide2

Setting the Scene*

  • Just weeks after the war ended, President Wilson boarded a steamship bound for France. He had decided to go in person to Paris, where Allied leaders would make the peace. Wilson was certain that he could solve the problems of old Europe. “Tell me what is right… and I will fight for it.”
  • Sadly, it would not be that easy. Europe was a shattered continent. Its problems, and those of the world, would not be solved at the Paris peace conference, or for many years afterward.
slide3

The Costs of War

5

  • More than 8,500,000 million people died. Twice that number had been wounded.
  • Europe's devastation was worse when in 1918 there was a deadly Pandemic, or spread of a disease across an entire country, continent, or in this case the whole world, of Influenza.
  • In just a few months 20,000,000 people died from the flu, twice as many as the war!
slide4

5

Deaths Wounded

in Battle in Battle

Allies

France 1,357,800 4,266,000

British empire 908,371 2,090,212

Russia 1,700,000 4,950,000

Italy 462,391 953,886

United States 50,585 205,690

Others 502,421 342,585

Central Powers

Germany 1,808,546 4,247,143

Austria-Hungary 922,500 3,620,000

Ottoman empire 325,000 400,000

financial burdens
Financial Burdens
  • In Europe homes, farms, factories, roads, and churches had been destroyed by bombing by both sides
  • Citizens felt bitter about war
  • Allies blamed the Central Powers because they were the aggressors. Thus wanted them to pay Reparations, or payments for war damage.
  • The Central Powers had seen the Armistice as a cease-fire and not a surrender. In turn they looked for scapegoats to blame their defeat on.
political turmoil
Political Turmoil
  • Because of the stress of War governments in Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire.
  • Radicals wanted to build new social order in Europe, like that in Russia where the Bolsheviks had taken over. [communists]
  • Europe’s colonies also started to rebel, seeing that European countries were not invincible.
the paris peace conference
The Paris Peace Conference*
  • To a weary world, Woodrow Wilson seemed a symbol of hope. His talk of self-determination and democracy raised expectations for a just and lasting peace, even in defeated Germany. Crowds cheered wildly as he rode along the Paris boulevards.
the big three
The Big Three
  • Woodrow Wilson of the United States, David Lloyd George of England, and Georges Clemenceau of France
  • Wilson was so sure of his rightness he was hard to work with, urging a peace without victory, and wanting the 14 points to be the basis of the peace treaty
  • David Lloyd George demanded harsh treatment for Germany and reparations to pay for a Great Britain “fit for heroes”
  • Clemenceau “the Tiger” was anti German, and wanted to weaken Germany so it could never again threaten France. “Mr. Wilson bores me with his Fourteen Points… God Almighty has only ten!”
difficult issues

5

Difficult Issues

The Allied leaders had different aims.

  • The Italians through Vittorio Orlando, insisted that the Allies honor their secret agreement to gain Austria-Hungary. Such secret agreements violated Wilson’s principle of self-determination.
  • Many people who had been ruled by Russia, Austria-Hungary, or the Ottoman empire now demanded national states of their own. The territories claimed by these people often overlapped, so it was impossible to satisfy them all.
  • Wilson was forced to compromise on his 14 points on one though, the creation of a League of Nations, he would not yield. The League was based on Collective Security, or a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all. With this league he believed any mistakes made in Paris could be corrected later.
the treaty of versailles

5

The Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty

  • forced Germany to assume full blame for causing the war.
  • imposed huge reparations upon Germany. 30,000,000,000, not only for war damage but for pensions also
  • aimed at weakening Germany by
  • limiting the size of the German military.
  • returning Alsace and Lorraine to France.
  • removing hundreds of miles of territory from Germany.
  • stripping Germany of its overseas colonies.

The Germans signed the treaty because they had no choice. But German resentment of the Treaty of Versailles would poison the international climate for 20 years and lead to an even deadlier world war.

self determination in eastern europe

5

Self-Determination in Eastern Europe
  • New countries emerged in Eastern Europe including Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary and Yugoslavia.
  • Eastern Europe, however remained a center of conflict even through today!
mandate system
Mandate System
  • European Colonies around the world believed that the Peace Conference in Paris would grant them independence from their colonial mother land
  • After all these colonists had fought alongside Europeans and aided in defeating the Central Powers
  • Self-Determination was only applied in Europe the Allies actually added colonies at the Peace Conference
  • Mandates, territories administered by western powers, were created out of German and Ottoman colonies
  • In theory these Mandates were to be independent Nations when they were “ready”, instead these places became permanent colonies to the victorious Allies
  • Colonized peoples felt betrayed by the peacemakers
unfulfilled goals
Unfulfilled Goals
  • Not only was Germany upset at the Paris Peace Conference but other countries as well
  • Italy was upset it did not get all the lands promised to it in the secret deal with the Allies
  • Russia was outraged that Poland was re-established as a nation and that they lost land to the new Baltic States of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia
  • These nations all bided their time, to fix these problems
  • Japan protested the refusal of the western nations to uphold its claim to parts of China
  • China was forced to take over former German Colonies
hopes for global peace
Hopes for Global Peace
  • One beacon of hope was the League of Nations, in the aftermath of the war millions of people looked to the League to ensure the peace
  • More than 40 nations joined the League, they agreed to negotiate disputes rather than resort to war, they promised to take common action economic or even military against any aggressor state
  • Wilson’s dream became a reality but guess what
  • Not even Wilson could get the United States Senate to ratify the treaty of Versailles the United States remained at war with Germany and Austria Hungary until 1921
  • The League proved to be powerless, but yet it was the first attempt at a global body of nations to promote the interests of all humanity
world war i cause and effect

5

World War I: Cause and Effect

Long-Term Causes

Immediate Causes

Austria-Hungary’s annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Fighting in the Balkans

Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand

German invasion of Belgium

Imperialist and economic rivalries among European powers

European alliance system

Militarism and arms race

Nationalist tensions in Balkans

Immediate Effects

Long-Term Effects

Enormous cost in lives and money

Russian Revolution

Creation of new nations in Eastern Europe

Requirement that Germany pay reparations

German loss of its overseas colonies

Balfour Declaration

League of Nations

Economic impact of war debts on Europe

Emergence of United States and Japan as important powers

Growth of nationalism in colonies

Rise of fascism

World War II