Biology and behavior
Download
1 / 33

Biology and Behavior - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 115 Views
  • Uploaded on

Biology and Behavior. Neural Control Systems Psychopharmacology The Nervous System How do we know these things?. Cells and synapses. Cells of the nervous system Glial cells Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes Neurons Unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar Soma, axons and dendrites Synapses.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Biology and Behavior' - major


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Biology and behavior

Biology and Behavior

Neural Control Systems

Psychopharmacology

The Nervous System

How do we know these things?


Cells and synapses
Cells and synapses

  • Cells of the nervous system

    • Glial cells

      • Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes

    • Neurons

      • Unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar

      • Soma, axons and dendrites

      • Synapses


Neural transmission 5 steps

+50

0

-70

0 1 2 3 4

Time in mSec

Neural transmission: 5 steps

1. Resting potential: -70mV

  • Pump Na+ out, K+ in

    2. Threshold stimulation:-65mV

    3. Action potential: +50mV

  • Allow Na+ in, K+ out

    4. Refractory period: -80mV

    5. Restore resting potential

mV


Ion movements

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Ion movements


Ion movements1

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

Ion movements


The propagation of the action potential
The propagation of the action potential

Note:

Myelin sheath

Nodes of Ranvier

Saltatory conduction


Seven steps of synaptic transmission

Manufacture and storage of neurotransmitter (acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

Arrival of action potential

Release of NT into synaptic cleft

Bonding of NT with receptor sites

Change in receiving neuron

Release of NT back into cleft

Metabolism or reuptake

Seven steps of synaptic transmission


The synapse
The Synapse dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

Axon terminal

Post-synaptic membrane (dendrite, muscle, gland)

Neurotransmitters

Synaptic vesicles

Receptor sites


Some neurotransmitters
Some neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

  • Acetylcholine (ACh)

  • Norepinephrine (NE)

  • Serotonin (5-HT)

  • Dopamine (DA)

  • g-amino butyric acid (GABA)

  • Glutamate or glutamic acid (GA)

  • Endorphins and enkephalins


The nervous system
The nervous system dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

  • Two main divisions:

    • Central Nervous System (CNS)

      • Encased in bone (skull and spinal column)

    • Peripheral Nervous System


Biology and behavior 1333998
CNS dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

  • Two main divisions:

    • Brain

    • Spinal cord


Biology and behavior 1333998
PNS dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

  • Cranial and spinal nerves

  • Sensory-Motor system

  • Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

    • Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)

    • Parasympathetic Nervous System (PSNS)


The brain
The brain dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

  • Brain stem

    • Medulla: Vegetative functions

    • Pons: Connections

    • Tectum and tegmentum: Reflexes

  • Cerebellum: Postural reflexes, movements

  • Cerebral hemispheres


Cerebral hemispheres
Cerebral hemispheres dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

  • Cerebral cortex: Gray matter

    • Frontal lobe

    • Parietal lobe

    • Temporal lobe

    • Occipital lobe

  • Sub-cortical gray-matter structures

    • Limbic system

    • Thalamus and hypothalamus

    • Hippocampus

  • White matter: Communication

    • Male and female general intelligence (Haier & Jung, 2005)


Lobes of cortex
Lobes of Cortex dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

Parietal lobe

CentralSulcus

Occipital

Lobe

Frontal lobe

Temporal

Lobe

Cere-

bellum

Pons


Color coded cortex
Color-Coded Cortex dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)


Methods of studying the brain
Methods of studying the brain dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

  • Animal models

    • Stereotaxic methods

  • Natural ablation studies, surgery

  • Psychopharmacology

  • Imaging techniques

    • CT, MRI, PET scans

  • Recording methods: EEG


Psychopharmacology

Pheromones dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

Hormones

Neuromodulators

Neurotransmitters

Psychopharmacology


Drug effects

Hormone mimics and receptors dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

Adrenaline, estradiol

Alter manufacture or release of neurotransmitters

Black widow venom, botulinum toxin (Botox)

Mimic or block receptor sites

Nicotine, curare, chlorpromazine

Drug effects


Drug effects 2

Inhibit reuptake: Cocaine, fluoxetine dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

Stimulate neuromodulators

Barbiturates and benzodiazepines

Drug effects 2


Hormones the endocrine system
Hormones: The endocrine system dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

  • The hypothalamus and the pituitary body

  • Hormone receptor molecules

    • Oxytocin acts only on mammary glands and the uterus

    • Testosterone acts on facial hair receptors


Endocrine control
Endocrine control dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

  • Hypothalamus controls by releasing hormones

    • CRH (Corticotropin Releasing Hormone)

    • Anterior part of pituitary releases ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)

    • Adrenal cortex releases cortisol

    • Hypothalamus detects cortisol and lowers release of CRH

  • Other glands are controlled in similar ways.


Other glands and hormones
Other glands and hormones dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

  • Anterior pituitary: GH (Growth Hormone)

    • Dwarfism and gigantism

  • Thyroid: Thyroxine and triiodothyronine

    • Metabolic rate, growth, maturation

  • Pancreas: Insulin

  • Pituitary LH (Luteinizing Hormone) and FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) activate ovaries and testes to produce gametes and sex hormones


The brainstem
The Brainstem dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

Thalamus

Tectum/Colluculi

Tegmentum

Pons

Medulla


Ct pet and mri scans
CT, PET, and MRI scans dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

  • CT, PET and MRI scan facilities

  • This clip shows the typical apparatus.

  • The person lies on the bed, with the head in the doughnut opening.


Mri in psychological research
MRI in psychological research dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

  • In this clip, you see the MRI results as a participant watches visual stimuli of two types, either combinations of lines or a moving figure with human proportions.

Note: Light yellow indicates high activity. Occipital lobe is in the center of this view of the brain; temporal to the side.