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Italian Unification

Italian Unification

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Italian Unification

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  1. Italian Unification • Geographic Breakdown: • Northwest: Piedmont-Sardinia (only Italian dynasty) • Northeast: Lombardy and Venetia: Austrian controlled • Below Venetia & Lombardy is Parma and Modena (dutchies) • Below them on west coast is Kingdom of Tuscany • East of Tuscany is Papal States • Southern half is Kingdom of Naples, or the Two Sicilies: ruled by Bourbons

  2. Many disgusted with existing authority • General desire to return to Renaissance glory (Risorgimento) • Unification led by “the three stooges” • Mazzini (Romantic Nationalism) • Cavour (Realpolitik) • Garibaldi (Romantic Warrior)

  3. Mazzini’s romantic nationalism • Young Italy • Romantic idealism • Failed revolutions in 1830’s and 1848

  4. Cavour • Prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia • Victor Emmanuel II was king • Cavour created parliamentary and constitutional procedures (liberal) • Favored modernization • Anti-clerical • Liberal, yet no sympathies for revolution! • Used Realpolitik • Participated in the Crimean War

  5. Garibaldi: The soldier • Nationalist and a man of action • Simple, romantic hero • Member of Young Italy • Private army: the Red Shirts, or Garibaldi’s Thousand • Helped Mazzini’s unification movement in 1848-1849 (lost & went into self-exile)

  6. Unification: Strategy & Actions • 1st, get help from larger nation (France) • Napoleon III saw Italy as ancestral home, thus sympathetic • France agreed to help Piedmont-Sardinia/Cavour • Plombiers Agreement (1858) • Northern Italy would be Sardinian (except Nice & Savoy, which France would get) • Central States would be kingdom led by Napoleon’s cousin • Small area around Rome ruled by Pope • Southern Italy remain the same

  7. Cavour instigated a conflict with Austria that led Austria to declare war (1859) • French/Italian troops against Austrian • Austria losing but… • Prussia seemed to be mobilizing (threat to France?) • Possible loss of Catholic support for French? • New Italian state more of a threat to France than a satellite state? • Napoleon III second-guessing his decision & withdrew from the war

  8. Franco-Austrian Treaty • Signed without Cavour knowing • Lombardy ceded to France, then given to Piedmont-Sardinia • Sardinia kept Nice & Savoy (for now) • Austria kept Venetia • Treaty of Turin (1860) • France given Nice and Savoy • France support Piedmont-Sardinia’s annexation of northern & central territories* • *Conflict encouraged various areas to revolt • Cavour used plebiscite to annex territories: Tuscany, Parma, Modena, Romagna

  9. Three Italy’s • Northern (Piedmont-Sardinia • Central (papal states • Southern (K of Naples) • Garibaldi upset about losing Nice & Savoy • Returned to Italy to re-take Nice & Savoy • Cavour was furious! • Southern K of Naples on the verge of revolt • Cavour secretly encourage Garibaldi to take advantage of it and attack K of Naples • Cavour’s thought: if Garibaldi wins – great! If Garibaldi dies – great! Win-Win!

  10. Garibaldi launched an attack in Sicily • People flocked to Garibaldi’s side • Piedmont-Sardinia ‘officially’ denied they sanctioned the invasion • K of Two Sicilies fell! • Garibaldi marched north to Papal States • Cavour, fearing Garibaldi’s successes, launched an attack on Papal States – beating Garibaldi to the punch (didn’t want to have Garibaldi attack the Pope (Rome) and anger the French)

  11. Garibaldi & Cavour face off • Garibaldi chose to hold a plebiscite to decide whether to join Cavour or attack • Voted to join & Garibaldi stepped down • France stayed away because • Rome itself untouched • Prussian threat seemed close • Kingdom of Italy proclaimed March 17, 1861 • Venetia joined after Austro-Prussia War • Rome joined after Franco-Prussia War • Vatican remain independent under control of Pope

  12. UNIFICATION DUE TO: • High-minded Mazzini • Audacity of Garibaldi • Cold Policies of Cavour • War & Insurrection • Plebiscites