Adjectives, Adverbs, Parallel structure Chapter 10, pg 177
Adjectives • Words that modify (describe) nouns and pronouns. http://ttosspon.wikispaces.com/Grammar+Rocks!#Adjectives • Charlene is a studious person. She is studious.
Adverbs • Modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. • They often end in –ly. They usually answer one of the following questions: How? When? Where? Why? Or To What Extent? • http://ttosspon.wikispaces.com/Grammar+Rocks!#Adverbs • Charlene happily dreams about her vacation. • You cannot be too careful. • Charlene worked very quickly.
Adverbs Common use (178) • always - never • even - not • ever - now • hardly - often • just - only • later - quite • more - seldom • much - surely • sometimes - too • tomorrow - very
Adverbs Comparisons – one thing, two things, three things Pg 179. Light, lighter, lightest Short, shorter, shortest Fast, faster, fastest Hard, harder, hardest. Easy, easier, easiest Helpful, more helpful, most Slowly, more slowly, most slowly For most adj and adv of ONE SYLLABLE, add –erfor comparative and –estfor superlative form.
Irregular Comparative Forms Compares 2 Adjective/adverb Compares 3 Worst Worst Best Best Most Most Most Farthest/furthest Least • Bad • Badly • Good • Well • Many • Much • More • Far • Little • Worse • Worse • Better • Better • More • More • More • Farther/Further • Less
Exercise 1, pg 181 easier • This chapter is ___________than the last one. (easy) • She is the ______ woman in the police department.(tall) • That machine is ____________ operated than the one in the other room. (easily) • He feels ____________ today than he did yesterday. (good) tallest more easily better
Exercise 1, pg 181 (continued) most famous 5. That woman is the __________ chef in San Francisco. (famous) 6. This paralegal is the _________________ person in the office. (helpful) 7. Would you please drive __________ than your father?. (slowly) 8. Unfortunately, this is the ________ business trip I have ever made. (bad) most helpful more slowly worst
Often Confused (pg 183) OR Is it really windy? Is it real windy? Real: not imaginary, genuineThe medics responded toa real emergency. Really: genuinely, trulyIt is really windy! Really is the adverb!
Misplaced & Dangling Modifiers • Modifier – a word or phrase, or clause, that functions as an adjective or adverb. • My only brother… • The marine, who is my brother, … • Just yesterday… Precedes the word it modifies or the flows well with the sentence. (see pg 185-186)
Misplaced Modifiers (pg 186) • Confusing position • Nearly the salesperson sold the used car … • Awkward position • With all the rusty spots, the salesperson could not sell the car. • Ambiguous position • The used-car salesperson when questioned seriously doubted he could sell the rusty car.
Doesn’t matter you say… • A woman passed by, leading a puppy in a long black dress. • Reading a book, my cat crawled into my lap. • The vase was lying on the floor broken into several pieces.
Exercise 3, pg 187 I gave the puppy with the white paws to my sister. • I gave the puppy to my sister with the white paws. • I am looking for the keys to the filing cabinets which are missing. • We decided to before the camping trip buy better sleeping bags. • As a pilot, passenger safety has always come first. I am looking for the missing keys to the filing cabinets. We decided to buy better sleeping bags before the trip. The pilot always put passenger safety first.
Exercise 3, pg 187 (cont.) They need to go directly home immediately after the party • They need to immediately after the party go directly home.. • The dance contestants waited eagerly watching the faces of the judges. • The jeweler wanted to for his new customer design a special charm bracelet. . • I took my daughter to my office who loved a day off from school . Watching the faces of the judges, the dance contestants waited eagerly. The jeweler wanted to design a special charm bracelet for his new customer. I took my daughter, who loved a day off from school, to my office.
Dangling modifiers • A modifier without a logical or identifiable word, phrase, or clause to modify in the sentence. • Working on the car’s engine, the dog barked all afternoon. • Correct it! (pg 188) • Create a new subject • Create a dependent clause w/ a subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun
Exercise 4, pg 188 Wearing his tuxedo, Victor fed the dog. • Victor fed the dog wearing his tuxedo. • Visiting Yellowstone National Park, Old Faithful entertained us by performing on schedule. • Hoping to see the news, the television set was turned on at seven o’clock. • Running up the stairs, the train had already left for Philadelphia While we were visiting Yellowstone National Park, Old Faithful entertained us by performing on schedule. Hoping to see the news, I turned on the television set at seven o’clock. Although I ran up the stairs, the train had already left for Philadelphia.
Avoiding double negative w/ the adverb not and other negative words • Pg 189-190
Parallel Structure • Sentences with lists or items, should look like this: • + + • The town was small, friendly, and peaceful. • Not like this: • + + • The town was small, friendly, and the atmosphere was peaceful.
Parallel Structure • + + • Words in a series should be the same parts of speech. • Phrases in a series should be the same kind of phrase.
Exercise 6, pg 192 • Winter in Chicago is very windy, extremely snowy, and has many bitterly cold days. • I would prefer to fix an old car rather than watching television. • Mr. Lee is a helpful neighbor, a loyal friend, and dedicated to his children. • The apartment is crowded and without light. bitterly cold. fixing an old car rather than watching a dedicated father. dark.
Exercise 6, pg 192 graceful. • The dancer is slender, tall, and moves gracefully. • The nursery was cheerful, large, and had a lot of sun. • My friend loves to play chess, to read science fiction, and working out at the gym. • As the truck rumbled down the street, it suddenly, smashed into a parked car, and then he truck hit the storefront of my uncle’s hardware store. sunny. to work out at the gym. hit the storefront of my uncle’s hardware store.