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CAR: Fragile progress

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  1. CAR: Fragile progress Humanitarian and Development Partnership TeamCentral African Republic (CAR) Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  2. Landlocked in the volatile centre of Africa Chad Sudan Nigeria Darfur CAR Cameroon DRC Uganda Congo Gabon Rebellion or internal conflict Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  3. DRC CAR No development progress in more than two decades One of only two LDCs in Africa with a falling human development indicator Human Development Index (HDI) Growth, Base = 100 (1985) +45% Burkina Faso, Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mozambique, Chad, Ethiopia +30% +15% 100 -15% 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Source: HDR (2007) Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  4. Current trend MDGs Development catastrophe at the root of the problem Share of people living in poverty unlikely to fall by half MDG 75% 67% 62% 50% 31% 25% 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Source: Human Development Report (2006) Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  5. Current trend MDGs Reaching the MDGs in CAR ? The health challenge Maternal mortality rate highly unlikely to decrease by three quarters MDG 1,600 1,355 1,200 949 683 800 400 171 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Source: Human Development Report (2006) Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  6. Current trend MDGs Reaching the MDGs in CAR? The Education challenge Highly unlikely that all children will benefit from primary education MDG 100% 75% 58% 60% 50% 55% 49% 25% 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Source: Human Development Report (2006) Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  7. PROTECTION For 300,000 refugees, IDPs and returnees: remain displaced or return to nothing ? SUDAN CHAD 17 50 DARFUR 3 4 3 Vakaga 56 23 8 0 12 25 Bamingui-Bangoran 5 5 45 10 Haute-Kotto Nana-Grébizi 5 15 Ouham-Pendé CAMEROON Haut-Mbomou 10 Ouham Nana-Mambéré 5 0 Bangui IDPs since 2005 in thousands Returnees since 2005 in thousands Refugees since 2002 in thousands DRC CONGO 10 8 Source: HDPT CAR (September 2008) * Estimated 25,000 pastoralists have been displaced from their territory. Not shown here. Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  8. KEY INDICATORS Some of the world’s lowest social indicators Quick facts Pupils per teacher in Sub-Saharan Africa • Infant mortality rate at 132 per 1,000 • Maternal mortality at 1,355 per 100,000 • 6.2% of the adult population HIV+ • 56% of births (~50,000) not assisted • Access to safe drinking water for only 26% of population • Global acute malnutrition for children under 5 years at 10% • Only 32% of pupils completed basic primary education in 2005 • Adult literacy rate 51% for men, 32% for women 100 92 83 80 72 66 63 62 60 40 20 CAR Congo Ethiopia Mozam. Chad Rwanda Source: Govt. Briefing Papers (, UNDP, UNFPA, MICS (2006) Source: UNESCO (2005), Pupil-teacher ratio in primary education (X:1) Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  9. JUPEDEC 500 km HUMANITARIAN ACTION Increasing humanitarian presence – September 2008 Birao Gordil Ndélé Sam Ouandja Kabo Paoua Kaga-Bandoro Bocaranga Bossangoa Mbrés Bozoum Obo Bouar Sibut Bambari BANGUI Source: HDPT CAR / Sep 08 Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  10. PEACE PROCESS EUFOR and MINURCAT support stability in the north-east Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  11. HUMANITARIAN ACTION Increasing humanitarian financing Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP) financing rises from $2.9m in 2004 to $69.3m in 2007 $92.5m $69.3m $23.9m $9.8m $2.9m 2005 August 08 2004 2006 2007 Source: FTS (2008) Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  12. PROTECTION Better access reveals full scale of suffering Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  13. What we achieved so far : Education, Protection and NFIs • Education - Some 78,000 children in conflict areas have resumed schooling during the 2007/2008 school year - 826 parent-teachers trained on pedagogy and evaluation ; 110 trainers trained on parent-teacher training and pedagogy - Government and NGO partners trained on emergency preparedness and response in the field of education ; Ministry of Education involved in cluster management • Protection, Human Rights, Rule of Law - NFIs and clothing distributed to 104,000 displaced people, refugees and returnees - A network of 55 humanitarian observers monitor displacement - Medical follow-up and psychosocial assistance provided to 250 survivors of violence and 40 survivors of sexual violence (1,182 since May 2007) - 80 representatives of local authorities, 130 FACA soldiers, 320 MICOPAX peacekeepers, 90 members of non-state armed groups trained on International Humanitarian Law • Shelter and NFIs -103,860 displaced people, returnees and Darfur refugees received plastic sheeting and household items. - 1,100 people providing social services trained on health, nutrition, hygiene, education and basic principles of protection Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  14. EDUCATION Bush schools: helping communities take action Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  15. Water and Sanitation and Nutrition • Water and Sanitation - 10 springs protected, 177 wells rehabilitated, 256 hand pumps repaired and 75 new boreholes built - At least 282, 000 people reached with various hygiene promotion activities in schools or communities - 66 VIP latrines and latrines built for 18,000 people - Hygiene kits distributed to nearly 80,000 people • Nutrition - 12 TFC in Bangui and in northern CAR are operational. Over 12,000 children treated every month - 4 out-patient therapeutic programmes opened, 3 up-country - 3 supplementary feeding units are operational around Bangui - 4 nutrition surveys carried out in Bangui, Ouham, Vakaga. Nutrition surveillance mechanisms set up in Bangui, Ouham, Haute-Kotto and Vakaga - 92 staff from 20 health centres in Bangui area, from Ouham and Nana-Gribizi trained on screening of acute malnutrition Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  16. Assistance for refugees, Food security and Infrastructures • Assistance for refugees - Protection, health, nutrition, water and sanitation, and food security programmes in place in Sam Ouandja camp for 3,139 refugees from Darfur - Together with the National Refugee Commission, protection, education and health assistance provided to 4,300 urban refugees - New refugee law adopted by National Assembly in Nov 2007 • Food security - 300,000 people received seeds kits and tools kits, including 3,139 refugees from Darfur - 220,000 people in need benefited from distribution of 23,000MT of food, nutritional supplements, school canteens • Economic recovery and infrastructures - 115 km of rural roads and 25 bridges built or rehabilitated - Main rural roads and bridges operational and maintained Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  17. Improving coordination • Adoption and decentralisation of the cluster approach - Strengthened coordination within clusters with all aid organisations participating as members or observers. - Cluster members continuously monitor displacement situation, e.g. 50 assessment missions in Ouham-Pendé, Ouham, Nana-Gribizi by one organisation’s two field offices alone - Protection sub-cluster established in Paoua ; security, health and education clusters established in Kaga Bandoro • Setting up a Common Humanitarian Fund Since July 2008, the CHF enables NGOs and UN agencies to get funding for humanitarian and early recovery programmes. Clusters now play a key role in developing humanitarian strategy & selecting projects for funding from CHF • Establishing best practice in information management A host of information products is available: thematic and geographic maps, intranet, internet, online databases ( • Moving towards an effective integrated mission Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  18. Building capacity for development • The government of CAR has made significant progress since 2006: - The Paris Declaration is signed - The HIPC decision point is reached - The national priorities are defined in PRSP - Peace agreements are signed and political negotiations are ongoing - The inclusive national coordination structures are developed • Multilateral organisations start capacity building projects, catching up on a lost decade • Implementing an online aid management system together with the government • Developing sector programmes, planning investments and expenditures Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  19. Three ‘make or break’ issues to enhance stability in 2009 Central African people expect government and donors to deliver Inclusive PoliticalDialogue SecuritySectorReform Poverty Reduction Strategy & Humanitarian Action Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  20. Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY An inclusive strategy for development Risks and need for action • Commitments and pledges of only $600 million, with no new bilateral partners • Lack of action on the PRSP could contribute to popular disillusionment and renewed tensions • Linking humanitarian and development aid critical to avoid recovery gap Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR Landmark document published in 2007 after wide public engagement Estimated costs at $3.5 billion for period 2008-2010 Donor Round Table raised significant expectations among the population

  21. Ensuring the budget plan is consistent with needs • Social sectors hugely under-funded - Resources for Education sector are planned at 9.77% of the total budget, well below the 15% average for West and Central Africa To compare, Defense is allocated 11.8% of total budget each year. Presidency and Primature together would received 9.35% - almost the same as education. - Health is planned to receive 18% of the resources, above the Abuja Agreement benchmark of 15% thanks to a significant amount of donor funds and pledges. - Social affairs are allocated just under 2% of the total budget - an extremely low amount, even for Africa. • Our role ? - to work with partners who are contributing to public finance management reform - to work with line ministries to help develop strategic planning and budgeting capacities - to mobilize resources for clearing arrears and improving the government capacity to invest in capital - to highlight the need for sector capacity building for planning and implementation to strengthen absorption capacity - to strengthen civil society and NGOs so they can engage actively in budget and expenditure monitoring Sources: medium term expenditure planning framework (2008-2010) Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  22. HUMANITARIAN ACTION Reviewing humanitarian action Changing realities Risks and need for action • Peace agreements signed • Banditry becoming main threat • Cross-border attacks worsen • Humanitarian presence breeds stability • Regional insecurity risk remains present and could continue to grow – Sudan, Chad and LRA in south-east • High prevalence of small arms increases likelihood of renewed conflict • Above crisis point – small changes in security situation could have massive humanitarian impact • Funding decline could endanger early achievements • Early recovery provides basis for longer term development – essential to bridge gap between humanitarian action and development aid Adapting the strategy • Expanding protection efforts • Reaching more people than ever • Seizing recovery opportunities • Streamlining humanitarian funding Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  23. Opportunities and risks in 2009 Risks Opportunities • Help to consolidate fragile peace • Dialogue paves way for free elections in 2010 • Security sector reform improves security and respect for human rights • Respond to manageable problem • Small population with basic needs • Small investments have large impact • Cooperative government despite low capacity • Move from crisis to recovery • Transition to early recovery and national development strategy • Humanitarian actors incorporate recovery strategy in their programmes • Resurgent violence • Failure of dialogue reignites insurgencies • Lack of security sector reform leads to continued impunity and dwindling international support • Progress undone • Short-term engagement undermines sustainability • Vulnerability to regional shocks remains high • CAR disappears from view once again • Dangerous recovery gap • Lack of humanitarian transition leads to aid shortfall and renewed tensions • Failure to support long-term development action weakens fragile society Break circle of poverty and conflict Fall back into full-scale violence Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR

  24. WEBSITES Useful websites • • HDPT CAR Blog on the humanitarian and development situation • • HDPT CAR Intranet for Humanitarian and Development Partners • • UNDP Central African Republic • • CAR Development Partner Consultation • • CAR Development Partner Round Table • • CAR Ministry of Planning, Economics and International Cooperation Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team CAR