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H388 Presentations 11/28/06

H388 Presentations 11/28/06

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H388 Presentations 11/28/06

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  1. Catie Broussard Kris Van Voorhis Jessica Bruno Elizabeth Schlossberg Amanda Graham Melissa Teixeira Brian Kelly Yuehong Lei (no slides) Michael Franklin Manisha Thapa Susan Krissel (absent with illness) Ashlyn Murphy H388 Presentations 11/28/06

  2. REFUGEES Dependent, Un-Free, Homeless, Unequal Catie Broussard, 28 November 2006

  3. What is a Refugee? • International Law and Normative Practice dictates that a refugee is a person who “owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside of the country of his nationality, and is unable to, or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that county. “ ( UN Conventoin,1951) • By concentrating on the large refugee populations in Africa—those refugees that have being displaced within their home region and are hosted by a neighboring state—we can target the greatest unequal and dependent populations to determine how their living. • Policy Questions for Hosts and International Community: Integration vs. Segregation and Repatriation vs. Assimilation • Decisions based on the situations of Refugee creation • Host –or contracting – country’s government acceptance of the international treaties and norms vs. indigenous “acceptance” of new and inherently needy populations

  4. Source : UN Statistics Report 2005: Global Refugee Trends

  5. Refugee Status is by nature UNEQUAL to nationals of host countries. • Uprooted to another country • Persecuted • Homeless • Dependent on Host and International Community

  6. Refugees in Africa Obtained from ReliefWeb


  8. QUESTIONS GET COMPLICATED…Who is the “Refugee”?Do only the poor become refugees?How does the extreme poverty of refugee populations compare to the state of indigenous populations?How can we understand and combat the problems of these dependent, homeless, unequal, “un-free” populations, that is only further complicated by the difficulty of obtaining statistics and measures of their plight?

  9. Understanding The Affordable Housing Crisis Kris Van Voorhis History 388 Hunger, Poverty and Market Economy Professor Ludden November 28, 2006

  10. The Problem • The American Planning Association has dubbed the affordable housing crisis as a “silent killer,” likening it to high blood pressure – acute, growing, deadly, and yet largely unknown for most Americans • According to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, more than 11 million households fall within HUD’s "worst-case" category, forced to pay more than one-half their incomes for housing, endure overcrowded conditions and/or live in structures with severe physical deficiencies. • More than 3.5 million Americans are considered homeless, 1.35 million of them being children

  11. Homelessness is a Poverty Issue

  12. The Homeless Population

  13. Demographic Factors: Race

  14. Demographic Factors: Geography

  15. An Underlying Cause: The Lack of Affordable Housing

  16. An Underlying Cause: The Lack of Government Spending

  17. An Underlying Cause: The Lack of Public Awareness and Support

  18. Assessment and Analysis of Nutritional Status in Bangladesh Jessica Bruno History 388 November 28th, 2006

  19. Findings • Comparisons of food intake vs. education level, location (urban/rural), gender, occupation, NGO (benefited/non-benefited) • Improvements in intake with primary education completed, urban location, female gender, and cultivators

  20. Example

  21. The Double Burden of Malnutrition Exploring the link between obesity and poverty and why the correlation exists… Elizabeth Schlossberg

  22. The Evidence • NHANES Survey 1971-2004 revealed a 50% increased chance of becoming overweight in poor versus non poor families (Miech et al 2006) • “The prevalence of obesity is significantly higher in poor communities than in affluent communities” (Journal of Youth and Adolescence) • Variables include age and race

  23. Why the Link? • Focus: Availability of healthy food • Healthcare • Adequate education about nutrition and a healthy lifestyle • A safe environment for physical activity

  24. Case Study: Washington DC Focus on the Availability of Fresh Food “Residents in Wards 7 & 8 where poverty is high and grocery stores are scarce are more likely to suffer from diet-related diseases than residents of the District’s other wards (Hunger Solutions). Obesity prevalence in Wards 7 & 8 is about four times higher than in Wards 2 and 3, which have the most grocery stores and many of the highest community food security rankings in the District.” (Hunger Solutions)

  25. Grocery Stores and Poverty The darker colors represent higher rates of poverty The dots represent grocery stores that sell fresh food

  26. Availability and Race • Ratio of grocery stores to residents revealed a ratio of 1:3,816 in chiefly white neighborhoods as opposed to 1:23,582 in chiefly African American neighborhoods (Journal for Preventative Medicine 2002)

  27. Why? • Similar problems occur in Philadelphia, Chicago and New York, but why? • The RISK is greater than the REWARD • Cost is too great to maintain security and to train reliable employees in lower income areas • Smaller profit margin due to sales of cheaper goods

  28. First Obesity, Then Diabetes The Upper East Side vs. East Harlem • Upper East Side grocery stores were three times as likely to stock diet soda, low-fat or fat-free milk, high fiber bread, fresh fruit and fresh vegetables • “Those living in East Harlem die of diabetes at twice the rate of people in the city as a whole” (New York Times 2006) • Sub par health care available in East Harlem leaves residents unable to afford medication for diabetes

  29. No Such Thing as an Easy Solution • While the availability of fresh, healthy food in lower income areas is one contributing factor to the problem, other factors include education, healthcare and a safe environment. Until all of these factors, along with government support come together, the problem can not be fixed.

  30. Dynamics of Poverty Among the Indigenous Population of Bolivia Amanda Graham November 28, 2006

  31. Introduction • 72% of population below poverty line • Same proportion of those people are indigenous • 60% of population indigenous • Social ladder “whitens in accordance with class privilege” • Why? Social Exclusion-denied access to resources

  32. What defines indigenous? • 36 Indian tribes recognized by government • 2 Main Groups • Aymara (20-25%) • Quechua (35-40%)

  33. Historical Factors • Spanish Conquistadors • Exploitation and Slavery • Liberalism (19th Century) • Biological Category of Slaves • Poverty dates from here • Serfdom until 1950s • Can’t escape • Continue to live in rural highlands