200 likes | 629 Views
Tennis. History of Tennis.
E N D
History of Tennis • Unlike most other sports, lawn tennis has precise origins. An Englishman, Major Walter C. Wingfield, invented lawn tennis (1873) and first played it at a garden party in Wales. Called “Sphairistiké” [Gr.,=ball playing] by its inventor, the early game was played on an hourglass-shaped court, widest at the baselines and narrowest at the net. In creating the new sport, Wingfield borrowed heavily from the older games of court tennis and squash racquets and probably even from the Indian game of badminton. • Court tennis is also known as royal tennis. It originated in France during the Middle Ages and became a favorite of British royalty, including Henry VIII. The progression from court tennis, which used an unresilient sheepskin ball filled with sawdust, sand, or wool, to lawn tennis depended upon invention of a ball that would bounce. • Lawn tennis caught on quickly in Great Britain, and soon the All England Croquet Club at Wimbledon held the first world tennis championship (1877). Restricted to male players, that event became the famous Wimbledon Tournament for the British National Championship, still the most prestigious event in tennis. In 1884 Wimbledon inaugurated a women's championship. Soon the game became popular in many parts of the British Empire, especially in Australia. • Tennis spread to the United States by way of Bermuda. While vacationing there, Mary Ewing Outer bridge of New York was introduced (1874) to the game by a friend of Wingfield. She returned to the United States with a net, balls, and rackets, and with the help of her brother, set up a tennis court in Staten Island, N.Y. The first National Championship, for men only, was held (1881) at Newport, R.I. A women's championship was begun six years later, and in 1915 the National Championship moved to Forest Hills, N.Y. Since 1978 what is now the United States Tennis Association Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing, N.Y., has hosted the event (known as the U.S. Open). The Tennis Hall of Fame is in Newport, R.I.
Tennis Rules Rule 1. Opponents stand on opposite sides of the court. The player who delivers the ball to start the point is called the server. The player who stands opposite and cross-court from the server is the receiver. Rule 2. The right to serve, receive, choose your side, or give the opponent these choices is decided by a toss of a coin or spin of racquet. If the choice of service or receiver is chosen, the opponent chooses which side to start. Rule 3. The server shall stand behind the baseline on the deuce court within the boundaries of the singles court when playing singles and within the doubles sideline when playing doubles. All even points are played from the deuce court (right side) and odd number points played from the advantage court (left side). The server shall not serve until the receiver is ready. Serves are made from the deuce court to the opponents service box on the deuce court. Advantage court to advantage box. If the server misses his target twice, he loses the point. If the ball hits the net and goes in the correct service box, another serve is granted. If the server steps on the baseline before contact is made, the serve is deemed a fault. Rule 4. The receiver is deemed ready if an attempt is made to return the server's ball. The receiver can stand where he likes but must let the ball bounce in the service box. If the ball does not land in the service box, it is deemed a fault and a second serve is given. If the ball is hit by either opponent before the ball bounces, the server wins the point. Rule 5. The server always calls his score first. If the server wins the first point, he gets a score of 15. Scoring is done like a clock. See example below. Love means zero in tennis. The second point is called 30. The third point is called 45 (now-a-days known as 40) and game is won when the score goes back to love. If the score is 40-40, also known as deuce, one side must win by two points. Advantage-In means if the server wins the next point, he wins the game. Advantage-Out means the receiver has a chance to win the game on the next point. LOVE 15-30-40 Rule 5. After the game, the opponents serve. Games equal 1. The first to win 6 games, by two, wins the set. The first to win 2 sets wins the match. If the score is 6-6, a tie-breaker is played. This is scored by one's. The first team to score 7 points winning by two wins the set. The tiebreaker continues until one side wins by two. Hence, Game-Set-Match. Rule 6. If the ball goes into the net, or outside the boundaries of the court, the player who hit that ball loses the point. If the ball hits the net during the point and goes into the opponents court, the ball is in play. A player loses the point if he touches the net, drops his racquet while hitting the ball, bounces the ball over the net, hits a part of the surroundings such as the roof, or a tree, the ball touches him or his partner, he deliberately tries to distract the opponent. Rule 7. A let is called during the point if a ball rolls on the court or there is a distraction from someone besides the players on the court. Rule 8. A ball that lands on the line is good. Rule 9. If players serve out of turn or serve to the wrong person or court, the point or game will stand and order will be resumed following the point or game.
Scoring Singles • If a player wins his first point, the score is called 15 for that player; on winning his second point, the score is called 30 for that player; on winning his third point, the score is called 40 for that player, and the fourth point won by a player is scored game for that player except as below:- If both players have won three points, the score is called deuce; and the next point won by a player is scored advantage for that player. If the same player wins the next point, he wins the game; if the other player wins the next point the score is again called deuce; and so on, until a player wins the two points immediately following the score at deuce, when the game is scored for that player. Doubles • In doubles a similar procedure to that for singles shall apply. At deuce the Receiving Team shall choose whether it wishes to receive the Service from the right-half of the court or the left-half of the court. The team who wins the deciding point is scored the game. Mixed Doubles • In mixed doubles, a slightly different procedure will apply as follows: At deuce, with the male player serving, he shall serve to the male player of the opposing team irrespective of which half of the court he is standing, and when the female player is serving, she shall serve to the female player of the opposing team.
Tennis Forehand To Master The Basic Forehand • Step 1: Prepare • Begin by adopting the ready position and then select your grip. For this flat forehand we recommend the continental grip, also known as the chopper grip, named thus because it's how you'd hold an axe for chopping. • To find this grip just hold your tennis racket as if it were an axe. The V of your thumb and forefinger should be just to the left of the top of the grip. • Step 2: Approach the ball • As soon as you see where the ball is going, drive off from your legs. Your aim is to get to the ball as soon as possible. • As you move, turn both your hands towards the tennis ball. • This will rotate your shoulders and upper body away from the ball, storing up energy that will power the shot. • Step 3: Bring the racket back • As you begin to take the racket back, pivot your feet to the right. If you're left handed, simply reverse these instructions. • Look to take the racket head back in a loop. • TIP: Use your other hand to point at the tennis ball. This turns your body sideways on the shot, preparing you for a strong swing. • Step 4: Your swing • Simply accelerate the racket into contact with the ball. • Your aim is to hit the ball when it is around waist height. • Power in your forehand comes from firing all your muscles: starting from the legs, then the hips, your shoulder, arm and then finally your wrist. • You power the ball by moving into it and stretching through the shot. • Step 5: Follow through • Follow through with your tennis racket reaching the opposite shoulder. Your body has now rotated naturally so that you are facing the court, ready for your next shot.
Tennis backhand • Step 1: The grip • Start by holding the racket straight out in front of you with your left hand, just below shoulder height. • Place your right hand on top of the racket grip, taking care to keep the wrist straight. • Close your right hand. You are holding the racket in the one-handed backhand grip. • Left-handed players do the same, but with left and right hands reversed. The same is true for the following steps. • Step 2: The correct body position • Start facing the net as normal, and put your right foot in front of the left, turning your whole body to the left so that feet, hips and shoulders all point in the direction you are going to hit the ball. • Support the neck of the racket with your left hand. This takes some weight off the right hand, so it can relax slightly and doesn't get tired. • The racket should rise to meet the ball, so keep its head low as you prepare for the shot. • You are now ready to hit the ball • Step 3: The shot • If your position and timing are good you should hit the ball at hip height, just before it comes in line with your body. • Swing at the ball so you meet it with your right arm fully extended. At the same time, put your left arm out behind you for balance. • Always hit with the swing of your arm, never from your wrist. Your arm should make a constant right angle with the racket throughout the swing. • Unlike in a forehand drive, there is no need to move your body when hitting a backhand shot. Just shift your weight forward onto your right foot as you take the shot • After hitting the ball, swing through with your right hand so you finish with racket, arms and hands all in a line with your shoulders. • The racket head should end up at shoulder height. If it is above your shoulders, you will hit the ball too high, losing power and accuracy • If the racket head finishes too low, you may hit the ball into the net. • If the ball is coming in too high, simply move backwards until it drops to the correct height. • To play a low ball, bend your knees to drop your hips to the height of the ball. Make sure you don't stand up until you have hit the ball. • Once you have got the hang of using the one-handed backhand grip, try some of the other shots explained in our tennis series.
Tennis serve • Step 1: Adopt your position • When serving, you start each game behind the baseline, to the right of the centre mark. • Have your front foot at an angle but have your back foot running approximately parallel to the baseline. • This will, quite naturally, place you sideways on to the court. • Your aim is to put the tennis ball into the service box diagonally opposite. • If you're new to the game just aim for the middle of the box. • Step 2: Prepare your grip • The correct grip for the serve is the chopper grip, named this way because it's how you'd hold an axe for chopping. • Just hold your tennis racket as if it were an axe. The V of your thumb and forefinger should be just to the left of the top of the grip. • Step 3: Position the racket • Simply point your tennis racket forwards to the target. • Use your other hand to balance, by lightly supporting the throat of the racket. • Step 4: Bring the racket back • Bring your tennis racket back into a throwing position, angling your body away from the court. • Your weight will naturally shift onto your back foot. • Step 5: The ball toss • At the same time as you draw back your racket, your other arm prepares to release the ball. • Your left hand, if you're right-handed, moves up with the ball. • Tip: Keep your left arm straight. Don't bend at the elbow. • The motion of your arm upwards, kept straight, will power the ball. • Try to feel a smooth, coordinated action...both arms moving together. • Step 6: Your swing • As the tennis ball reaches its highest point, accelerate the racket head at the ball in a throwing action. • Tip: Reach up to hit the ball - the higher you make contact the more power you can generate. • Step 7: Follow through • Follow through across your body then recover quickly ready for your next shot.
Tennis Terms • Ace. A powerful serve that blows by the receiver. Or an amazing tennis player. • Advantage in. The server has the advantage and can win on the next point. • Advantage out. The receiver has the advantage and can win on the next point. • Backhand. A tennis stroke where your racquet arm crosses over your body to hit the ball with the back of your racquet hand facing the ball. • Ball Person. The person who gathers the balls that went out of play. • Baseline. The chalk line at the end of the court that marks out-of-bounds. • Court. The area where you play the game of tennis. Can be made of grass, clay or concrete. • Crosscourt. When you hit the ball diagonally over the net onto your opponent's side of the court. • Deuce. A score of 40-40. • Dink. A tennis shot with little or no pace. • Doubles. A four-player game of tennis, with two players on each side of the court. • Fault. A failed serve that doesn't make it into the service box. • Frame. The head or top of the racquet where the strings are. • First Service. The first serve. • Follow Through. The part of your tennis swing after you hit the ball. • Forehand. Tennis stroke where your racquet hand faces forward. • Game Point. When the leading player needs one point to win. • Grand Slam. Four major tennis tournaments: Wimbledon, U.S. Open, the French Open and the Australian Open. • Head. Part of the tennis racquet contained the frame and strings. • Let. A voided serve where a served ball hits the net but makes it onto the service court. • Lob. Tennis stroke where you hit the ball high above the net and it goes deep. • Love. Score of zero in tennis. • Match Point. When the leading player can win the match with just one point. • Mixed Doubles. A doubles match where each team contains one male and one female. • Net. White netting spanning the middle of the tennis court. • No-Man's Land. Area of the tennis court between the baseline and service line. • Out. Any tennis ball that goes outside of the designated playing area. • Point. Time between the successful serve until the ball goes out. • Racquet. Tennis equipment used to hit the ball over the net. Also called a stick. • Receiver. The player who is receiving the serve. • Serve or Service. This has nothing to do with food, but everything to do with hitting the tennis ball to a certain point on the tennis court. • Singles. A two-player game of tennis, with one player on each side of the court.Stroke. Way of hitting a tennis ball. Can be forehand or backhand. • Volley. Yes, you're still in the tennis terms article. Volleying is when you hit the tennis ball before it touches the ground.
Worksheet 1. What year was Tennis introduced to the United States? 2.Where is the U.S. Open played, and what is the name of the stadium it is played in? 3.What are the court dimensions for a singles court? 4.What are the first, second, third and fourth point in Tennis? 5. What are the court dimensions for a doubles court? 6. What is Deuce? 7.What side does the server start serving from? 8.Draw and label a tennis court with all lines. 9. What is a “let” in Tennis? 10. A ball that lands on the line, is it in or out? Questions 11-13 Describe how to perform the following skills correctly; The Forehand, The Backhand, The Serve Questions 14-25 Define the following terms; Ace, Advantage in, Baseline, Crosscourt, Follow-through, Grand slam, Lob, Love, No-Man’s Land, Receiver, Stroke, Volley,
Work Cited • http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sports/A0861489.html • http://westlake.k12.oh.us/hilliard/whspe/tennis/tennis_scoring.htm • http://westlake.k12.oh.us/hilliard/whspe/tennis/tennis_rules.htm • http://www.videojug.com/film/how-to-serve-the-basics • http://www.videojug.com/film/the-one-handed-backhand-grip • http://www.videojug.com/film/how-to-master-the-basic-forehand • http://www.tennis-rules.net/tennis_terms/tennis_terms.html