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Oxfam’s proposition for gender & drr

Oxfam’s proposition for gender & drr

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Oxfam’s proposition for gender & drr

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  1. Oxfam’s proposition for gender & drr For initial discussion in developing CBDRM model for INCRISD 11 April 2013 Farhana Hafiz

  2. INTRODUCTION • Understanding how gender relations shape women’s and men’s lives is critical to disaster risk reduction (DRR). This is because women’s and men’s different roles, responsibilities, and access to resources influence how each will be affected by different hazards, and how they will cope with and recover from disaster. Unequal power relations between women and men mean that, despite the incredible resilience and capacity for survival that women often exhibit in the face of disaster, they also experience a range of gender-specific vulnerabilities. • Oxfam believes that all of its work should strive to strengthen gender equality and women’s rights by transforming the balance of power between women and men. It sees this as both a matter of justice and basic rights, and as a means of addressing poverty and suffering more effectively. This is particularly important in preparing for, and responding to, disasters and the impacts of climate change, as these tend to magnify existing inequalities between women and men.

  3. KEY CONCEPTS AND LINKSWHAT IS GENDER?

  4. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SEX AND GENDER • Biological differences associated with being male or female • Social differences taken to exist between females and females

  5. GENDER IS LEARNED, CHANGEABLE AND VARRIED • The social differences that make up gender are learned • They are deeply rooted in every culture • They are changeable over time • They have wide variations within and between cultures

  6. HOW DOES GENDER AFFECT PEOPLE • Along with class, ‘race,’ and other aspects of social identity, gender determines the roles, power, and access to resources for people in any culture. • Gender roles and gendered power relations directly influence who has access to and control over which resources and opportunities, and who makes decisions.

  7. GENDER IS UNEQUAL • In many countries of the world, the distribution and control of resources and opportunities is not equal between women and men. • Women and men do not enjoy equal rights, opportunities, access to resources, and rewards.

  8. WOMEN, PARTICIPATION & POWER • Women generally tend to hold less power and fewer resources at every level, globally. • Unequal gender relations are often embedded in structures from the household through to the community and the state. • Often women have little control over their fertility, sexuality or marital choices, and have limited mobility. • This limits their public participation and increases their vulnerability to poverty, violence, and HIV. • This is systematic discrimination and an infringement of women’s human rights.

  9. GENDER IS NOT JUST ABOUT WOMEN • Men also have gender-specific vulnerabilities. • It is important to pay equal attention to these • But they rarely face gender-based discrimination. • If they are marginalised, it is usually due to other aspects of their social identity. • Women with the same identities typically suffer double discrimination as members of marginalised groups and as women.

  10. WHAT DOES GENDER EQUALITY MEAN? • Equal enjoyment of rights, opportunities, resources, and rewards by women, girls, boys, and men • Enjoyment of rights, opportunities, and life chances is not governed or limited by gender • It does NOT that women and men are the same.

  11. UNDERSTANDING POWER RELATIONS IS CENTRAL TO UNDERSTAND GENDER EQUALITY • Which men and which women hold the power in this community? • Who owns and controls resources? • Who takes the decisions? • Who sets the agenda? • Who gains and who loses from processes of development?

  12. OXFAM’S VISION Many more women will gain power over their lives and live free from violence through changes in attitude, ideas and beliefs about gender relations, and through increased levels of women’s active engagement and critical leadership institutions, decision making and change process.

  13. HOW TO ENHANCE POWER STRUCTURE • Participation (Power to): Active citizenship of women and men to change environment of formal and informal structure where women can exercise their rights and entitlements. • Leadership (Power within): Taking equity measures to improve the women leadership ability, understanding, knowledge which helping women to build the confidence to become agency of change. • Empowerment (Power with): Developing networking and collective actions which provide individual or groups to have power decision making, ability to set agenda and analyze the power. • Women Empowerment: Process of gaining control over the self, over ideology and resources, which determine power and power structure- confidence to challenge injustice, inequalities, violence and discrimination.

  14. THEORY OF CHANGE

  15. OXFAM’S APPROACH TO GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN DRR

  16. WHY IS GENDER EQUALITY IMPORTANT? • Gender inequality is not only a fundamental abuse of women’s human rights, but also a major barrier to sustainable development. • So, working towards gender equality is both a question of justice and basic rights, and a means of addressing poverty and suffering more effectively.

  17. HOW CAN PROGRAMMES MAINSTREAM GENDER EQUALITY? Oxfam’s strategy to promote gender equality includes: • investing in targeted women-specific projects, and • putting women’s rights at the heart of all our work. Programmes should: • benefit both women and men, • not harm or exclude women, and • help to redress existing gender imbalances.

  18. WHAT DOES GENDER MAINSTREAMING AIM TO ACHIEVE? • To support women in their efforts to challenge stereotyped gender roles and to reduce women’s reproductive burden • by helping women to achieve: • greater access to and control over resources • higher participation and leadership in decision-making processes • protection from gender-based violence • an increased sense of empowerment and capability.

  19. GENDER MAINSTREAMING INPOLICY AND ADVOCACY • Institutional frameworks, policies and legislation at all levels need to uphold women’s rights and contribute to gender equality. • Organisations, institutions and governments responsible for work addressing adaptation and risk reduction need to demonstrate accountability to women. • Specific funds need to be allocated to these processes, • e.g. for increasing the participation of women in bodies such as UNFCCC, Hyogo Framework for Action • Oxfam needs to develop alliances with women’s rights organisations and networks working on these issues at all levels.

  20. MEN’S ROLE IN GENDER MAINSTREAMING • Gender mainstreaming is about the concerns of both men and women, the relations between them, and the root causes of imbalances of power. • But women have a greater burden of poverty and suffering globally due to systematic discrimination against them at all institutional levels. • So gender mainstreaming aims to support women’s ability to exercise their human rights. • Projects need to work with men to get their support to help ensure that DRR initiatives uphold women’s rights and strengthen gender equality.

  21. PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT AND DRR

  22. PROGRAMME IDENTIFICATION: GENDER ANALYSIS The first step in the process of mainstreaming gender throughout the project cycle is to carry out a gender analysis. It allows us to understand how poverty & disaster affects men, women, boys, and girls differently, and to identify their specific different needs, concerns and priorities. A gender analysis should identify the following issues: • differences in the lives of poor women and men in the target community; • the status of women and their ability to exercise their human rights; • the different skills, capacities, and aspirations of women and men; • the division of labour between women and men; • the different access to and control over resources enjoyed by women and men; • the different levels of participation and leadership enjoyed by women and men; • indications of the number of women experiencing gender-based violence; and • the barriers that unequal gender relations present to women’s development in this particular community.

  23. PLANNING AND DESIGN: PROGRAMME POLICY OBJECTIVES The outcomes of any gender analysis carried out during risk, vulnerability, and capacity analysis must be built into the identification of community programming and policy objectives. This should be approached in two ways: • Ensure that all objectives acknowledge and address gender differences. For example, rather than ‘improve people’s access to early warning information’, a gender sensitive objective would be ‘to ensure that women and men have better and more equal access to early warning information, and that the communications system is tailored to the different behaviour patterns of men and women’. • Identify specific objectives to strengthen women’s empowerment and gender equality, for example reducing their household workload.

  24. OBJECTIVES & STRATEGIES TO STRENGTHEN GENDER EQUALITY • Set objectives and develop strategies to strengthen gender equality • Ensure women and men from marginalised groups are represented and participate actively in planning • Identify partner organisations with a track record of, and commitment to, gender equality and women’s rights.

  25. BUDGET, MONITORING & EVALUATION • Budget for activities that will support gender equality work: • Internal – e.g. gender-awareness training for staff • Programme / policy – e.g. leadership training for women • Assess potential impact of planned work on the interests of women and men • Develop gender-sensitive monitoring and evaluation indicators

  26. IDENTIFYING OBJECTIVES • Your gender analysis should be used to identify programme and policy objectives that • acknowledge and address gender differences • strengthen women’s empowerment and gender equality

  27. CORE PLANNING PRINCIPLE • Know the facts – gender analysis must be central to planning • Use a human rights approach – participatory and rights-based approaches support women to access their human rights • Think big – opportunities for long-term women's empowerment can open up at times of change or disaster • Resist stereotypes – be aware of the specific cultural, economic, and political context • Respect and build women’s capacities: their knowledge, experience, networks and resources.

  28. ADDRESSING GENDER BASED VIOLENCE Plan measures to reduce the incidence of violence and support victims: • monitor the impact of interventions on the safety of women, men, boys, and girls • make daily activities safer for women and girls • provide information about support and medical help • increase community and staff awareness of GBV • support the development of female leadership • work in coordination with other development and humanitarian actors see handout 3.2

  29. GENDERED ANALYSIS OF CAPACITY & VULNERABILITY

  30. Categories and factors Capacity Vulnerability Women Men Women Men Physical or material Social or organisational Attitudinal or motivational A GENDERED CVA MATRIX

  31. A GENDERED CVA ENABLES US TO: • examine whether the capacities and vulnerabilities relating to particular categories and factors concern women, men, or both • undertake explicit analysis of power relations between women and men, taking into account gender-based violence.

  32. A GENDERED CVA – ASSESSING CHANGE OVER TIME • Capacities and vulnerabilities change over time due to events and processes (including humanitarian / development interventions and climate change) • The CVA should be reviewed regularly (every 1 to 2 years) • The CVA can be used to assess change over time and so contribute to monitoring and evaluations.

  33. HOW TO MAKE DRR MORE GENDER INCLUSIVE

  34. MAKE DRR A PRIORITY AT ALL LEVELS WITH A STRONG INSTITUTIONAL BASIS • Ensure that the priorities of grassroots women’s organisations are represented in co-ordination mechanisms for DRR, such as national platforms; • Ensure that analysis and planning for DRR capacity development is prioritised equitably for men and women; • Ensure that budget allocation for DRR implementation in all sectors and levels is prioritized for action that benefits women; • Promote the involvement of women in participatory community planning processes for DRR through the adoption of specific policies; in the creation of networks; and when determining roles and responsibilities, authority over, and management of available resources.

  35. IDENTIFY AND MONITOR RISKS AND ENHANCE EARLY WARNING • Involve both women and men equally in the development of risk and hazard maps and data, and identify gender-specific aspects of risk and vulnerability; • Support research, analysis, and reporting on long-term and emerging issues that might increase the risks faced by women; • Encourage the participation of women where possible in early-warning systems and ensure they are appropriate and accessible to both women and men. This means that communication alerts, media, and technology need to be tailored to the preferences and behaviour patterns of women and men.

  36. BUILD UNDERSTANDING AND A CULTURE OF SAFETY AND RESILIENCE AT ALL • Ensure that women’s as well as men’s knowledge is promoted to build a culture of safety; • Ensure that activities and events to build understanding of risk target women as key change agents, and that the means of communication are appropriate for women; • Promote the targeting of children, especially girls, with risk knowledge through formal and informal channels; • Ensure equal access to DRR training and educational opportunities for women.

  37. REDUCE UNDERLYING RISK FACTOR • Ensure that critical safety facilities and infrastructure (e.g. evacuation shelters and emergency housing, water, sanitation, and health systems) are resilient to hazards, accessible to both women and men, and that women have adequate privacy and security; • Promote the importance of support to women and groups involved in sustainable ecosystems and natural resource management, including planning land-use to reduce risk; • Promote diverse livelihoods options for women to reduce their vulnerability to hazards, and ensure that risks faced by women are not increased by inappropriate development policy and practice; • Ensure that the development of financial risk-sharing mechanisms prioritises the involvement of women, and that they are accessible and appropriate to the needs of women at risk of disaster; • Raise awareness among both women and men about a woman’s right to live free from violence at home and in the public domain.

  38. STRENGTHEN PREPARDNESS TO RESPOND EFFECTIVELY AT ALL LEVELS • Disaster preparedness and response plans should take into account gender-differentiated vulnerabilities and capacities, be disseminated to both women and men in languages both can understand, and prioritise actions to reduce the risks faced; • The importance of women as key change agents should be promoted and women fully involved in community disaster management committees, disaster response drills, etc.