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Penalties & Enforcement. Philosophical Approach Enforcement Principals Enforcement Situations. Penalty Flag Trivia. Flag first used in a college game in 1941. Whistles or horns were used until then. The flag was red/white striped. Flag officially adopted in 1948.

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penalties enforcement

Penalties & Enforcement

Philosophical Approach

Enforcement Principals

Enforcement Situations

penalty flag trivia
Penalty Flag Trivia

Flag first used in a college game in 1941. Whistles or horns were used until then. The flag was red/white striped.

Flag officially adopted in 1948.

Red colored in HS and college until early 70’s.

NFL used white until 1965.

CFL uses orange.

Orlando Brown settled for a reported $25m after being hit in the eye with a flag from NFL Referee Jim Triplette in 1999.

philosophical approach
Philosophical Approach
  • The “Quality” of your call or no-call can significantly affect the course of a game.
  • Remember the purpose of the game – to legally advance the ball.
  • As an official, your job is to judge the execution & if necessary, the intentof a player. If an illegal act occurs, you must then process the following three things:
    • Does the infraction affect the play?
    • Does it concern player safety or sportsmanship?
    • Did his team gain an advantage during the course of the play due to that illegal action?
  • “Ball position on the field” or “time on the clock” has no bearing on these three actionsbecause consistency is the objective for officials.
  • Don’t be too technical, avoid “nitpick” or “gotcha” calls, make it be there, especially major fouls!
  • Phantom calls are truly game interrupters, see the entire play or keep the flag in your pocket.
  • If the action falls into a gray area of “foul or no foul”, then it should be considered “no foul” unless safety or sportsmanship is a factor.
  • Use HUDL video to assist you in recognizing “warning signs” and improving your decision making abilities.
holding philosophy
Holding Philosophy
      • Holding presents a challenge for officials because so many factors surround throwing the flag.
      • Keys to Offensive Holding fouls:
        • Point of attack
        • Double-teamed
        • Advantage / Disadvantage
        • Direction of runner. (Is the defender actively pursuing the runner?)
        • Blockers positioning, can the opponent separate?
        • Watch the blockers feet & quickness of the defender
  • Types of offensive holding:
    • Tackle: Holding below the waist or at the legs.
    • Takedown: Wrestler style holding. Small blockers seeking an advantage.
    • Pullover: Blocker pulls the defender on top of him to the ground.
    • Hook, Grab, or Jerk and Restrict: Holding after the players has been beaten by the defender. Be sure that the action affects the play.
  • Types of defensive holding:
    • Pull & Shoot: Defense pulls a lineman away so a clear path can be used by a teammate.
pass interference
Pass Interference
  • Remember Basic Pass Interference Guidelines:
    • Action that interferes with an opponent’s opportunity to move toward, catch, or bat a pass. Incidental contact is not interference.
    • Contact is not necessary.
    • Interference must occur beyond the line of scrimmage.
    • Restrictions Begin:
      • Offense – At the snap. (If he initiates contact 2 yds. beyond the LOS or sets a pick, it’s OPI.)
      • Defense – When the ball leaves the passers hand.
    • Both offense and defense have a legal right to the ball.
    • “Catchable Pass” is not a factor in high school football.
    • It’s the responsibility of the offense to avoid the defenders.
  • Contact by the Defense:
    • Contact by the defense on a potential blocker is legal until the offensive receiver demonstrates that he is not a blocker by:
      • Moving away from the defender.
      • Passing the defender.
      • Once either occur, the defender may not make contact. (9-2-3d)
      • GUIDELINE: Allow defensive contact until offensive receiver occupies same yard line, or until he demonstrates that he is not blocking.
      • PENALTY: Illegal Use of Hands (10 yards)
nfhs enforcement principals
NFHS Enforcement Principals
  • All-But-One: Enforcement is based on the fact that a team is given the advantage of the distance which is gained without assistance of a foul. It is assumed that the only foul which would give this aid would be a foul by the offense behind the basic spot. Therefore, “all foulsbut this one”, that is a foul by the offense behind the basic spot, are penalized from the basic spot. This one foul is penalized from the spot of the foul.
  • Exceptions to Live Ball – “All But One” fouls:
    • Fouls which occur simultaneous with the snap.
    • Foul by the opponent of the scoring team during a successful try, field goal, or touchdown. (Penalty is assessed from the succeeding spot if the score and penalty are accepted.)
    • Non-player or unsportsmanlike fouls.
    • Roughing the passer when the dead ball spot is beyond the NZ and there has been no change of possession.
    • Kick catching interference when the offended team accepts a penalty of 15 yards from the spot of the foul.
principals
Principals
  • Play Spots & Types:
    • Basic spot for a loose ball play is the previous spot.
      • “Loose Ball Play” is action during:
        • Free Kick or Scrimmage Kick.
        • Legal Forward Pass.
        • Backward Pass (including snap), illegal kick or fumble made by A from in or behind the NZ prior to a change of possession.

Note: (Includes run(s) which precede such legal or illegal kick, legal forward pass, backward pass or fumble.)

    • Basic spot for a running play is the end of the run.
      • “Running Play” is any action which is not a loose ball play.
        • In or behind the NZ in either of the following:
          • Includes a run not followed by a loose ball.
          • A run followed by an illegal forward pass.
        • Beyond the NZ:
          • Includes a run.
          • A run followed by a loose ball, including an illegal forward pass or kick. A run ends when a runner loses possession, but the related running play continues until the ball becomes dead or some player again gets possession.
special enforcement rules
Special Enforcement Rules
  • Free Kick Out of Bounds
      • Inbounds spot through yard line where ball went O.B.
      • Inbounds spot 25 yards from the previous spot.
      • 5 yard penalty and re-kick by K.
  • Kick-Catching Interference
      • *Awarded fair catch following a 15 yard penalty from the spot of the foul, or;
      • 15 yard penalty from previous spot & re-play down.
  • Unfair Acts
      • Referee imposes penalty that he considers equitable if not covered by rule.
  • Fouls During Scoring Plays
    • Fouls by the opponents of the scoring team;
      • During Touchdownwith no change of possession, or foul after change of possession.
        • Accept results of play and have penalty enforced from succeeding spot or subsequent kick-off.
      • During a Successful Try.
        • Accept results of play and have penalty enforced from succeeding spot.
      • During a Successful Field Goal.
        • Accept results of play and have penalty enforced from succeeding spot.
special enforcement rules1
Special Enforcement Rules
      • After a Touchdown and before the initial ready for play signal for the try.
    • If either team commits any foul for which the basic spot is the succeeding spot, the offended team can have the penalty enforced from the succeeding spot or the subsequent kickoff.
  • First Touching by R is ignored
    • If R commits a foul after the touching and the penalty is accepted.
    • A penalty for any foul is accepted.
  • Roughing the kicker (holder) / running into the kicker (holder) –
    • Roughing – contact that endangers the safety of the kicker or holder.

(15 yds.)

    • Running into – contact where the kicker or holder is displaced from his position but not roughed. (5 yds.)
    • Contact is ignored when:
      • It is not reasonably certain that the kick will be made.
      • The kick is touched.
      • A defender is blocked into the kicker or holder by a member of the kicking team.
special enforcement rules2
Special Enforcement Rules
  • Roughing the passer – Enforcement is added from the dead ball spot beyond the neutral zone when there is no change of team possession.

(15 yds.)

  • Roughing the snapper – Defensive player must charge directly into the snapper when the offense is in kicking formation. (15 yds.)
  • When a run ends in the end zone after a change of possession, the basic spot is determined based on the force that put the ball in the end zone.
    • 20 Yard Line – Fouls by either team when the opponent of the team in possession at the time of the foul is responsible for forcing the ball across the goal line of the team in possession, and the run ends in the end zone and is followed by a loose ball, regardless of where the loose ball becomes dead. (10-4-6)
    • Goal Line – Fouls which are committed during running plays by the opponent of the team in possession at the time of the foul when the team in possession is responsible for forcing the ball across its own goal line, and the related run ends in the end zone and is followed by a loose ball, regardless of where the loose ball becomes dead. (10-4-7)
all but one enforcement
All-But-One Enforcement

Defensive Penalties are Not Part of the All-But-One Principal!!!

20

Offensive Live-Ball Foul

Basic Spot

Defensive Live-Ball Foul

Beyond

30

Penalty Marked off from the basic spot

Offensive Live-Ball Foul

Behind

Penalty Marked off from the spot of the foul

40

all but one enforcement1
All-But-One Enforcement

Running Play

Basic Spot

Play (run) whistled dead

20

Offensive Live-Ball Foul

Behind

Penalty Marked off from the spot of the foul

Spot of Snap

30

40

all but one enforcement2
All-But-One Enforcement

Loose Ball Play (Pass)

Pass caught & player tackled

immediately.

20

Offensive Live-Ball Foul

Basic Spot

Spot of Snap

Beyond

30

Penalty Marked off from the basic spot

Offensive Live-Ball Foul

Behind

Penalty Marked off from the spot of the foul

40

all but one enforcement3
All-But-One Enforcement

Running Play(Which Includes a Loose Ball – Fumble)

Offensive Live-Ball Foul

20

Play whistled dead

Beyond

Basic Spot

Penalty Marked off from the basic spot

Penalty Marked off from the spot of the foul

Behind

Spot of Snap

30

Offensive Live-Ball Foul

40

all but one enforcement4
All-But-One Enforcement

End Zone Enforcement

20

Running play whistled dead

10

Spot of Snap

Basic Spot

G

Offensive Live-Ball Foul

SAFETY

Behind Goal Line

all but one enforcement5
All-But-One Enforcement

Touchback Enforcement

Basic Spot

20

Penalty marked off from the spot of the foul

Spot of Snap

10

Defensive Live-Ball Foul After Interception

Play Whistled Dead

G

Behind Goal Line -

Touchback

Defensive Interception

all but one enforcement6
All-But-One Enforcement

Double Foul Enforcement / Change of Possession

Offensive Live-Ball Foul Before Interception

20

Defensive Live-Ball Foul After Interception

Spot of Snap

10

Play Whistled Dead

Basic Spot

Penalty on defense is marked off from the basic spot, half the distance.

G

Defense must decline the penalty in order to keep the ball since they obtained it with “clean hands”.

Defensive Interception

dead ball enforcement
Dead Ball Enforcement

Situation: 2nd down & 5 from B-30

20

Play whistled dead at B-23

Offensive Dead-Ball Foul

Penalty Marked off from the succeeding spot

Spot of Snap

30

First down was achieved by A.

First & 10 from B-38

40

dead ball enforcement1
Dead Ball Enforcement

Situation: 4nd down & 4 from B-35

20

First down was not achieved by A.

B’s ball, 1st & 10 from B-22

30

Spot of Snap

Penalty Marked off from the succeeding spot

Play whistled dead at B-37

Defensive Dead-Ball Foul

40

live dead ball enforcement
Live / Dead Ball Enforcement

Situation: 2nd down & Goal from B-15

Touchdown

Defensive unsportsmanlike foul in end zone

G

Live ball penalty marked off under “all but one”, back to 13 yard line.

Offensive holding foul at 3 yard line

Remains A ball, 2nd down & Goal from the 6-1/2 yard line.

10

Dead ball penalty marked off from the succeeding spot, half the distance to 6-1/2 yard line.

Spot of Snap

Remember: Live ball penalties are administered first, then all dead ball penalties in the order of occurrence! Live Ball / Dead ball penalties do not offset!

20

enforcement during a score
Enforcement During a Score

R

Situation: 2nd down & Goal from B-15

Touchdown

G

40

Live ball penalty marked off

on the try half the distance, or the succeeding kick-off.

Defensive foul during run

Kick-off from R’s 45 yard line if succeeding spot option is taken..

K

10

50

Spot of Snap

20

40

psk enforcement
PSK Enforcement

Kick Ends Here

Penalty marked off from basic spot - end of kick

20

Penalty marked off from basic spot - end of run

Receivers Live-Ball Foul During Kick

Return Ends Here

Receivers Live-Ball Foul After Kick Ends

30

Receivers Live-Ball Foul During Kick

Spot of Snap

Expanded Neutral Zone

Penalty marked off from basic spot – previous spot

40

scrimmage kick enforcement
Scrimmage Kick Enforcement

Penalty marked off from the spot of the foul, or

Kick Ends Here

Kick Catch Interference

20

Return Ends Here

30

Spot of Snap

Penalty marked off from basic spot – previous spot

40

scrimmage kick enforcement1
Scrimmage Kick Enforcement

Kick Ends Here

Kick Catch Interference

20

The penalty cannot be carried over since the foul occurred before the change of possession (during the loose ball play).

30

Spot of Snap

Return Ends as Touchdown

40

scrimmage kick enforcement2
Scrimmage Kick Enforcement

B-9 retreats to his own end zone where he is tackled there. Momentum is not a factor.

What are our options/decisions?

G

Accept the results of play; Safety - B free kick from B20

Ball then rolls untouched to the 11 and is then “illegally kicked” forward by A-78.

B-9 picks ball up at 2

10

Accept first touching by A – First down for B at B11

Spot of Snap

Expanded Neutral Zone

Accept 15 yard penalty – Replay 4th. down from B30

Situation – 4th & 4 from B-15; Scrimmage Kick Formation

20

FG attempt partially blocked by B-99

officiating guides
Officiating Guides
  • You have specific officiating responsibilities, work your position, no more – no less.
      • Tenth Commandment - Thou shalt not covet your neighbors house, wife, or another officials area.
  • See the whole play. Rely on your experience, your judgment, and the intent or spirit with which the rules are written. Consistency in judgment throughout the game establishes credibility!
  • Use preventative officiating (not coaching). Communicate with players, coaches, and fellow officials.
  • Player actions that can result in injury must be called and enforced.
  • Proper penalty protocol:
      • Drop the flag at the appropriate yard line. Keep officiating if ball is live.
      • Be sure your flag is covered by another official before you report to the referee. (Don’t leave the dead ball spot.)
      • Be clear in your communication with the referee regarding the penalty. Don’t give a visible signal as you approach the referee.
      • Record unsportsmanlike penalties on your card.
  • Don’t indulge in a “make-up” call nor be “talked into” a call by a coach.
  • Remember, game films don’t lie.