ToK - Truth Does truth matter?
ToK - Truth What does it mean to say something is true?
ToK - Truth “Truth is what stands the test of time” Einstein “A thing is not necessarily true because a man dies for it.” Wilde “Unthinking respect for authority is the greatest enemy of truth.” Einstein
ToK - Truth How many legs does a dog have if you call the tail a leg? Four: calling a tail a leg doesn’t make it a leg
ToK - Truth “The truth, of course, is that a billion falsehoods told a billion times by a billion people are still false.” Travis Walton
ToK - Truth To say something “is true” is much less problematic than to say itis “the truth”. Why?
ToK - Truth There are three main theories of what is meant by, “x” is true....
ToK - Truth i. Correspondence Theory:(Going and looking;observational truths)
ToK - Truth “A true proposition must correspond to or matcha state of affairs in the world.”
ToK - Truth Directions - True Distances - True Shapes - True Areas - True It corresponds to the real world - it is true and accurate
ToK - Truth Mercator’s Projection Easier to use but how well does it correspond to reality?
ToK - Truth ii. Coherence Theory:(Sitting and thinking;logical truths)
ToK - Truth According to this view, a proposition is true if it is consistent with all the other propositions we hold.
ToK - Truth If the pieces fit together they are coherent - like the pieces of a Jigsaw Puzzle
ToK - Truth When the pieces of an argument do not fit together they are incoherent – and we do not accept the argument as true.
ToK - Truth Coherent - but......
ToK - Truth iii. Pragmatism(does it work?;practical truths)
ToK - Truth The meaning of an idea is to be found in an examination of the consequences to which it would lead (C. S. Peirce)
ToK - Truth A proposition is true if it works or is useful in practice
ToK - Truth Thus pragmatists hold that truth is not absolute, but modified as discoveries are made, and that it is therefore relative to the time, place and purpose of inquiry.
ToK - Truth • Examples of beliefs..... • 1. true and useful? • 2. true but not useful? • 3. not useful and not true?
ToK - Truth FootnotesOther theories and approaches:
ToK - Truth A cubist approach to truth … To know what is true we need to look at many different perspectives and try to combine them in a coherent way that corresponds to reality
ToK - Truth There are also those who are, to a greater or lesser degree, doubtful of our ability to attain the truth, and therefore of the possibility of any knowledge: this kind of critical outlook is called ‘Scepticism‘.
ToK - Truth Relativism- argues that there is (or, we can have) nothing other than our different outlooks
ToK - Truth Instead of trying to give and use a definition of absolute or universal truth, we can only study how the concept of truth has been and is being used in particular societies.Foucault
ToK - Truth “Keep the company of those who seek the truth, and run away from those who have found it” Havel
ToK - Truth • Does the word truth mean the same thing in each of these cases: • It is the truth that a triangle has 3 sides. • ‘There is ice at the North Pole’ is the truth. • There is real truth in that painting. • Ain’t that the truth! • This scripture is God’s truth.