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Matter

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  1. Matter “Luminous beings are we, not this crude matter!” -Yoda, on the nature of The Force

  2. Matter • Any substance in the universe • Has mass, takes up space • There are only two forms of existence in the Universe; matter and energy.

  3. Ways to Classify Matter • Composition • Based on what types of particles make up a substance • Elements, Compounds, Mixtures • Phase • Based on how particles are arranged because of Energy • Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma

  4. Phases • Solids • Particles are locked in a regular, repeating pattern called a crystal lattice • Strong forces between certain solids lead to high melting points

  5. More on Solids • Hardness • Describes how hard a solid is compared to other solids • Based on the attractive forces between particles in a solid

  6. Shape and Volume • Solids do not change shape or volume without adding energy • Wax, glass, Play-Doh, are amorphous solids – they change shape when energy is applied, but retain that shape afterwards

  7. Phases • Liquids • Particles are touching, but not locked in pattern • Particles can “slide” past one another, causing the liquid to flow

  8. More on Liquids • Viscosity • Describes how well a liquid flows • Based on attractive forces between the particles

  9. Shape and Volume • Liquids do not change volume but do take the shape of their container • The surface of a liquid is assumed to be parallel to the surface of the Earth when at rest • Amorphous solids are also classified as “super-cooled liquids”

  10. Phases • Gases • Particles are very far apart • Particles collide with each other or their container rarely • These collisions define the “pressure” of the gas

  11. Shape and Volume • Gases change shape and/or volume • They take the shape of their container, expanding to fill the container • Explains why aromatics/perfumes will spread across a room

  12. Phases • Plasma • Like a gas, but MUCH higher energy • Particles collide with so much force, electrons are knocked off of atoms • This creates a “charged gas” state • Plasmas are uncommon on Earth, as they start around 5000ºC • Only in lightning, aurorae

  13. What is the lowest energy state or phase of matter? • Solid • Liquid • Gas • Plasma

  14. What phase of matter has particles sliding past one another? • Solid • Liquid • Gas • Plasma

  15. What phase of matter is rarely found on Earth? • Solid • Liquid • Gas • Plasma

  16. What is the highest energy state or phase of matter? • Solid • Liquid • Gas • Plasma

  17. What phase of matter has particles locked in a regular, repeating pattern? • Solid • Liquid • Gas • Plasma

  18. Phase Changes • You must add or remove Heat Energy to change from one phase to another

  19. Warming up! • Three Phase Changes that require added heat energy: • Melting • Going from Solid Phase to Liquid Phase • Vaporization • Going from Liquid Phase to Gas Phase • Sublimation • Going from Solid Phase to Gas Phase

  20. Cooling down! • Two Phase Changes that require removalof heat energy: • Condensation • Going from Gas Phase to Liquid Phase • Freezing • Going from Liquid Phase to Solid Phase

  21. Composition • Pure Substance • Follow exact measures or proportions • Made up of only one kind of particle • Mixtures • Can be any amounts or kinds of particles

  22. Pure Substances • Elements • Made of only one kind of atom • All atoms of an element are alike • Found on the Periodic Table • Compounds • Two or more atoms chemically combined • Follows a formula • Cannot be separated except: • by chemical means • to form a new compound

  23. Oxygen • Element • Compound

  24. Carbon Dioxide • Element • Compound

  25. Sodium Chloride • Element • Compound

  26. Calcium • Element • Compound

  27. Carbon Tetrachloride • Element • Compound

  28. Mixtures • Homogeneous • Particles so small or so well mixed that the particles can’t be seen • Also called a solution

  29. Solutions • Can be any phase in another phase • Parts – • Solute – substance being dissolved, usually in less amount • Solvent – substance doing the dissolving, usually in greater amount

  30. If air is 78% Nitrogen and 21% Oxygen, which is the solvent? • Nitrogen • Oxygen

  31. What is the solute in orange juice? • Water • Orange particles

  32. Which is the solvent in sweet tea? • Sugar • Water • Tea • Ice

  33. What is the solute in muddy water? • Water • Dirt particles

  34. Types of Solutions • Concentrated – high ratio of solute to solvent • Dilute – low ratio of solute to solvent • Alloy – solutions of metals • Amalgam – solution in Mercury (liquid metal) • Aqueous Solutions – water as the solvent

  35. Solution Process • “Surround and Separate” • Particles of the solvent pull particles of solute into solution

  36. Speeding Up Solutions • Agitation • Stirring makes particles collide more often • Surface Area • Grinding up a solute makes it easier to “surround and separate” them into solution • Temperature • Heating a solution speeds up the particles, increasing the number of collisions • NOTE: When dissolving a gas in a liquid, a colder liquid slows down the gas particles and dissolves more total gas

  37. Which method of speeding up a solution explains why a powdered aspirin works faster than a tablet? • Agitation • Surface Area • Temperature

  38. Which method of speeding up a solution explains why sugar dissolves better in fresh tea than iced tea? • Agitation • Surface Area • Temperature

  39. Which method of speeding up a solution explains why Kool-Aid powder has to be stirred into water? • Agitation • Surface Area • Temperature

  40. Which method of speeding up a solution explains why you can’t make “Cold Chocolate”out of “Hot Chocolate” powder? • Agitation • Surface Area • Temperature

  41. Which method of speeding up a solution explains why soup mix dissolves faster than bouillon cubes? • Agitation • Surface Area • Temperature

  42. Solubility • Describes how well a substance will dissolve in 100g of water at a given temperature • Differs with each substance and temperature

  43. Amounts of Solute • Unsaturated • Solution has not dissolved as much solute as it can hold • More solute can be dissolved • Saturated • Solution has dissolved as much solute as it can hold • No more solute can be dissolved • Supersaturated • Solution has dissolved more solute than it can hold • Solute will come out of solution if disturbed until it reaches the Saturation Point

  44. Heterogeneous Mixtures • Mixtures that are not well mixed • Particles are so large that they can be seen or “picked out”

  45. Types of Heterogeneous Mixtures • Suspensions • Temporary mixtures • Particles settle out upon standing • Colloid • Particles do not settle out • Appears as a homogeneous mixture, but the particles scatter light (Tyndall Effect)

  46. Physical Properties • Any description of a material • Size, color, mass, etc. • Physical Changes • Any change to a material that does not change the material • Reversible