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CHINESE Revolutionary PIES

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  1. CHINESERevolutionaryPIES

  2. The Chinese Revolution Overview

  3. POLITICAL CAUSES Emperors rule through autocratic rule Others too weak • Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908) • De facto Chinese monarch (1861-1908) • Blamed by many Chinese for foreign imperialist power in China Emperor Puyi – the “Last Emperor”

  4. ECONOMIC & SOCIAL CAUSES Lack of industry Foreign Imperialism Peasants had no access to land Lack of Education Little infrastructure

  5. INTELLECTUAL CAUSES Rise of the Nationalists • Founded Kuomintang (KMT) – Nationalist party • Overthrew Manchu (Qing) dynasty, 1911 • Established a republic • President of Chinese Republic who succeeded him – Yuan Shih-k’ai Sun Yat-sen (Sun Yixian)

  6. Three Principles of the People Sun Yat-sen wanted to establish a modern government based on three principles • People’s Rights- Democracy the people are sovereign • Nationalism – an end to foreign imperialism • People’s Livelihood – economic development, industrialization, land reform, and social welfare – elements of progressivism and socialism

  7. Republic of China: Weaknesses • Disunity • Local warlords fought Kuomintang for control • Wars raged between 1912 and 1928 • Foreign imperialists • Americans, Europeans, and Japanese • Poor transportation • 1914 – only 6,000 miles of railroad track • 225,000 miles in the smaller United States • Few decent roads

  8. Chinese Warlords, 1920s Yuan Shi-kai

  9. China in 1924

  10. Foreign Imperialists • Twenty-One Demands (1915) • Japan attempted to make China a Japanese protectorate • Action condemned and stopped by other leading world powers • World War I and the Treaty of Versailles • China declared war on Germany in hopes that Allies would concessions and extraterritoriality • Attempt failed • China did not sign the Treaty of Versailles • Japan gained mandate over most of Germany’s Asian possessions and rights

  11. May 4th Movement • 1919- 3,000 angry students protested the Treaty of Versailles in Beijing • Demonstrations spread across the country as workers, shopkeepers, and professionals joined the cause. • Protestors demanded strong, modern government • However, many young intellectuals turned against Sun’s belief in Western democracy in favor of communism

  12. Mao Zedong • Assistant librarian in • Beijing • 1921- Helped organize the • Chinese Communist Party • Believed he could bring • revolution to a rural • country and that peasants • could be true revolutionaries (Mao Tse-tung)

  13. Mao With His Children, 1930s

  14. Growth of Communism • Sun Yat-sen appealed for Russian (Soviet) aid following the Versailles Conference • Sun became disillusioned with the Western democracies that refused to support his struggling government • Allied Kuomintang with the Communist party • 1921-1925 – China received advisors, arms, communist propaganda, and loans • Russia revoked its imperialist rights in China Chinese flag, 1912-1928

  15. The Kuomintang (KMT) is Split • Right wing • Business people • Politicians • Left wing • Communists • Intellectuals • Radicals • Students

  16. Nationalist Revolution • Sun Yat-sen died in1925 and wassucceeded by Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) • His followers were bankers/business people • Feared Communism • Government became less democratic and more corrupt • Peasants started to support communists because they lost faith in Kai-shek • Mao divided land that the Communists won among local farmers. Presidential Palace under Kuomintang Government in Nanjing

  17. 1926-1928 – war to control the warlords • Communists/Nationalists join forces. • 1927 Kai-shek turned against communists and ordered many Communist leaders and union workers killed. Killings in many Chinese cities. • Communists almost wiped out. • 1928- Jiang Jieshi becomes President of the Nationalist Republic of China. • Capital moved from Peiping (a.k.a. Peking, today’s Beijing) to Nanking (Nanjing) (Chiang Kai-shek)

  18. Civil War in China • 1927-1932 and 1933-1937 – war between Communists and Nationalists • Communists – Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong) • Nationalists – Chiang Kai-shek • War halted 1932-1933 and 1937-1945 to fight Japanese aggression • Communists were victorious in 1949 • Nationalists retreated to Formosa (Taiwan)

  19. Civil War • Mao and other Communists leaders established themselves in the hills of south-central China. • “swimming in the peasant sea” • Recruited peasants to join the Red Army, trained them in guerilla warfare. • Nationalists failed to drive them out • Long March • 1933- Jiang’s army surrounded the Communists’ mountain stronghold. • Communists fled (100,000) • 6,000 mile journey • 1934-1935 stayed just ahead of Jiang’s forces • Thousands died of hunger, cold, exposure, and battle wounds. • Settled in caves in northwestern China, gained new followers

  20. The Long March

  21. Survivors of the March

  22. Japan Agression • Civil War interrupted when Japan invaded China • 1st in 1931 when Japanese invaded Manchuria • 2nd in 1937 with the invasion of China

  23. Japanese Aggression, 1931 - 1945

  24. Japanese Soldiers March into NankingDecember 9, 1937

  25. The Japanese Invasion, 1937