The Motion Picture Industry became movie capital of world.
silent films musical accompaniment varied usually an organ.
The Jazz Singer 1st “talking” picture starred Al Jolson in black-face.
1928 1st animated cartoon w/ sound Walt Disney introduced Mickey Mouse.
Film colorized films popular each frame painted by hand.
film became standard for taste styles songs morals.
tabloids cheap movie magazines by-products of movie industry.
Jazz Ragtime late 1890s considered earliest form of jazz Blues developed simultaneously w/ Ragtime influenced by slave spirituals/jubilees Pre-WW I minstrels vaudeville sentimental ballads band music “Jazz” term not widely used until after WW I.
New Orleans Dixieland Jazz traveled N 1st to Chicago.
“Jelly Roll” Morton 1st great Jazz composer/piano player imp transitional figure between Ragtime/Jazz piano styles.
in 1920s/30s THE jazz club only best headlined.
known for music/floor shows entertainers black audiences primarily white.
helped make Harlem focal point of northern Black culture.
Louis Armstrong considered 1st “true” jazz musician.
born in New Orleans 1st master improviser called “King of Jazz” influenced many musicians.
"Louis Armstrong's station in the history of jazz is unimpeachable. If it weren't for him, there wouldn't be any of us." Dizzy Gillespie 1971
“Duke” Ellington formed one of greatest jazz bands in history headlined at Cotton Club for yrs.
Bessie Smith “empress of blues” among most popular recording artists of 20s.
The “New Negro” Alain Locke 1st Black Rhodes scholar Professor of Philosophy at Harvard considered “Father” of movement.
Contributing Factors “Great Migration” to N cities.
Alain Locke Marcus Garvey ↑ in radical Black intellectuals. WEB DuBois
outburst of Af-Am creative activity • began in NYC • Harlem • 1st called • “New Negro Movement” • beginning of Jazz Age in NYC • marked by acceptance of Af-Am • culture • literature • music.
Harlem is vicicous Modernism. Bang Clash. Vicicous the way its made, Can you stand such beauty. Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones)
(Harlem) is romantic in its own right. And it is hard and strong, its noise, heat, cold colours are so. And the nostalgia is violent too; the eternal radio seeping through everything day and night, indoors and out, becomes somehow the personification of restlessness, desire, brooding. Nancy Cunard Harlem Review 1933
Aaron Douglas work exemplified “New Negro” included murals on buildings cover art illustrations for The Crisis.
… Our problem is to conceive, develop, establish an art era. Not white art painting black… lets bare our arms and plunge them deep through laughter, through pain, through sorrow, through hope, through disappointment into the very depths of the souls of our people and drag forth material crude, rough, neglected. Then let’s sing it, dance it, write it, paint it. Let’s do the impossible. Let’s create something transcendentally material, mystically objective. Earthy. Spiritually earthy. Dynamic. Aaron Douglas
Langston Hughes self proclaimed calling "to explain and illuminate the Negro condition in America“ writings expressed confidence pride.
raised/educated in primarily white community differed from other Harlem Renaissance poets lacked cultural background to comment from personal experience on lives of other Blacks use popular Black themes in writing.
The Lost Generation term coined by Gertrude Stein writers angered by shallowness of Am culture concerned w/ rapid increase of materialism by middle class.
HL Mencken “Bad Boy of Baltimore” assailed marriage patriotism democracy prohibition Rotarians middle class “Booboisie” called do-gooders “Puritans” Puritanism “haunting fear that someone, somewhere, might be happy.”
A good politician is quite as unthinkable as an honest burglar. Adultery is the application of democracy to love. Before a man speaks it is always safe to assume that he is a fool. After he speaks, it is seldom necessary to assume it. Conscience is the inner voice that warns us that someone might be looking. Democracy is a pathetic belief in the collective wisdom of individual ignorance. For every problem, there is a solution that is simple, neat, and wrong. Giving every man a vote has no more made men wise and free than Christianity has made them good.
F Scott Fitzgerald acclaimed as spokesman for twenties generation.
Ernest Hemmingway fought in WWI experience impacted writing.
Sinclair Lewis chronicled mid-western life acquisitive amoral hypocritical.
William Faulkner considered by many best Am novelist of 20th century.
Poets Robert Frost TS Eliot