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The Arts. The Age of Industry. Romanticism. Diverse style Emotional appeal Tended toward nature, the Gothic and, often, the macabre. Fought to break the geometric composition of classicism. Intent was to dramatize, personalize and to escape into imagination.

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the arts

The Arts

The Age of Industry

  • Diverse style
  • Emotional appeal
  • Tended toward nature, the Gothic and, often, the macabre.
  • Fought to break the geometric composition of classicism.
  • Intent was to dramatize, personalize and to escape into imagination.
  • Reflected the striving for freedom from social and artistic rules.
francisco de goya
Francisco de Goya
  • Used his paintings to attack abuses of government both Spanish and French.

The Third of May

The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters

duchess of alba
Duchess of Alba
  • What is the story as defined by the painting?
eugene delacroix
Eugene Delacroix
  • Employed color, light and shade to achieve dramatic effect which capture climactic moments of high emotion.

The Massacres of Chios

Liberty Leading the People

Aims at deeper symbolism as Liberty

Horses and action were his favorites

john constable
John Constable
  • Want to paint things as they we actually seen.
j m w turner
J. M. W. Turner

Burning of the Houses of Parliment

  • Foreshadowed the dissolving image of 20th Century painting.

The Slave Ship

Based on a real event from the poem “The Seasons” by James Thomson

  • A new style of painting.
  • Some refer to social realism – emphasis on the contemporary scene.
  • Reaction to the invention of the camera.
  • Why would the camera effect painting?
  • Ran from the 1840’s through the 1860’s
  • Why so short a time period?
gustave courbet
Gustave Courbet

Represented everyday scenes and events as they actually looked

jean francois millet
Jean Francois Millet
  • Focused on a realistic-romantic vision of landscape and used peasants as their subject matter.


The Gleaners

Inspired by Millet

edouard manet
Edouard Manet
  • Followed the realist tradition but strove to paint “only what the eye can see”. Liberated the canvas from the camera.

The Bar at the Follies

  • Created a new way of seeing reality and sought to capture “the psychological perception of reality in color and motion.
  • Style lasted only fifteen years in its purest form, but it profoundly influenced all art that followed.
  • Discovered that color in not inherent in an object but in the perception of that object as modified by the quality of existing light.
  • Small group of artists who met together frequently and held joint exhibitions.
claude monet
Claude Monet
  • Series paintings

Rouen Cathedral


august renoir
August Renoir
  • Specialized in the human figure.
  • “The earth is the paradise of the gods, that is what I want to paint.”
post impressionism
Post Impressionism
  • Last two decades impressionism evolved into a collection of disparate styles.
  • Gave their subject matter a complex and profoundly personal significance.
  • Called for a return to form and structure.
  • Subject matter was similar to the Impressionists.
georges seurat
Georges Seurat
  • Called his approach “divisionism”
  • He systematically applied specks of paint to the surface.
  • Called Pointillism because paint is applied with the point of the brush, one small dot at a time.
paul cezanne
Paul Cezanne
  • Considered by many as the father of modern art.
  • Shapes are simplified and outlining is used. He believed that all forms in nature are based on geometric forms.
paul gauguin
Paul Gauguin
  • An artist without training. Believed that all of European society and its works were sick.
  • Devoted his life to art and wandering.
  • Flat, outlined figures, simple forms and symbolism.

The Vision After the Sermon

What is the symbolism?

vincent van gogh
Vincent Van Gogh
  • Unique pursuit of emotionalism in form.
  • Turbulent life reflected in his art.

The Night Cafe

Starry Night

  • Consisted predominately of a reproduction of classical works rather than a revisiting of them.
  • Used in France to glorify Napoleon by putting him in Greek and Roman settings. Sometimes in the style of a Greek god.
  • Has some aspects of rococo, baroque, and romantic styles.
antonio canova
Antonio Canova

One of the best of the neo-classical sculptors

auguste rodin
Auguste Rodin
  • Explored the area between Romanticism and Impressionism.
  • The most remarkable sculptor of his time.
  • Used texture to try and do what the Impressionist painters did with color and texture in paint.
  • The reality he tries to portray goes beneath the surface.

The Burghers of Calais


The Thinker

  • Classicism: the use of Greek and Roman forms.

Owens-Richardson House

Davenport House

Federal Style

Belamy Mansion

  • Late in the period the skyscraper was designed in response to the need to create commercial space on limited property in urban areas.
  • Almost exclusively an American architectural phenomenon.
  • A man named Otis invented a safe and reliable elevator.
burnham and root chicago
Burnham and RootChicago

One of the earliest examples of the skyscraper.

When and why did this become a necessity for Chicago?

louis sullivan
Louis Sullivan

The first truly modern architect. His buildings characterize dignity, simplicity and strength. He created the modern idea of form follows function.

Carson, Pirie and Scott Building

Auditorium Building

Wainwright building

art nouveau
Art Nouveau
  • Provides a decorative surface that gives a unique character to the building.
  • Unique characteristics are curves known as “whiplash” and a fascination with plant and animal life.
  • Influenced by Japanese art.
  • Very linear.
romanticism in architecture
Romanticism in Architecture
  • Borrowed styles form other eras
  • Revived Gothic and used fantasy.

Houses of Parliament

London, England

Royal Pavilion and gardens

Brighton, England


New materials in steel and glass allowed for experimentation in architecture.

England’s Crystal Palace is an perfect example.

Mass produced. Easy to assemble and disassemble.