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  1. Indoor Wayfinding: Developing a Functional Interface for Individuals with Cognitive Impairments Alan Liu, Harlan Hile, Henry Kautz, Gaetano Borriello University of Washington Computer Science & Engineering Pat Brown, Mark Harniss, Kurt Johnson University of Washington Rehabilitation Medicine

  2. Problem • Difficulties in wayfinding diminish the quality of life of many individuals with cognitive disabilities • Unemployment • Less access to community services • Social isolation • Particular problems for indoor wayfinding • Medical centers • Large office buildings • Shopping malls, supermarkets Affiliates 2006 – Indoor Wayfinding

  3. User Interface Intelligent Control Learn user model Infer errors Decide when to intervene Localization WiFi RFID Camera phone Misc. sensors Wayfinding system goals User Interface Localization Intelligent Control Affiliates 2006 – Indoor Wayfinding

  4. User Interface questions • What kinds of direction-giving strategies are effective inside a building? • What situations can arise during use? • E.g., riding the elevator with others • Which modalities do users prefer? • Is there a wide range of preference? Affiliates 2006 – Indoor Wayfinding

  5. Prototype design • User carries mobile device that links with building infrastructure (WiFi) • User receives messages consisting of images, audio, and text • Directions guide along path • Prompts to help return to a path • Design challenge: make messages “clear” Affiliates 2006 – Indoor Wayfinding


  6. Image Overlaid arrow Text Audio Affiliates 2006 – Indoor Wayfinding

  7. Photos of the environment Icons for short prompts Augmented/enhanced photos Affiliates 2006 – Indoor Wayfinding

  8. Wizard of Oz infrastructure • Experiment before building system • Realistic experience for potential users Affiliates 2006 – Indoor Wayfinding

  9. Study • 7 participants with cognitive impairment • Participants used interface to guide them through 3 routes • 3 sets of modalities • Image and text • Audio and text • Image, audio, and text • Done in our Computer Science & Engineering building Affiliates 2006 – Indoor Wayfinding

  10. Routes Turns: intersections along the route where participants had to change their heading. Intersections: all intersections along path. Affiliates 2006 – Indoor Wayfinding

  11. Task completion • 6 of 7 participants reached all their route destinations • Participant 4 unable to reliably distinguish left/right, struggled with text and audio modality • Participant 5 just as comfortable with a map • Participant 1 requires the use of powered wheelchair Affiliates 2006 – Indoor Wayfinding

  12. Findings • Text • Read at own pace • Unfamiliar vocabulary, size (readability) • Audio (less popular than text) • Liked in conjunction with other modalities • No easy playback, noisy surroundings • Images • Disambiguation, helpful to distinguish left/right • Slow to process (suggests focus on landmarks) • Arrows and highlighted regions • Simple helped show where to go / direct attention • Multi-turn, non-standard orientations confusing Affiliates 2006 – Indoor Wayfinding

  13. Findings (cont’d) • Message timing is critical • Exiting elevator, quick turns • Device usage • Spectrum of usage (“cruise control”, stop and wait, refer occasionally) • Device form factor • Conspicuousness, size, weight • Could be addressed by mobile phone Affiliates 2006 – Indoor Wayfinding

  14. Conclusion • User Customization • Using preferred modalities • Accommodating users with multiple impairments (e.g., mobility, hearing) • System adaptation • Choosing appropriate message complexity • Determining the right timing for messages • No “one size fits all” solution Affiliates 2006 – Indoor Wayfinding

  15. Future work • Expand system capabilities • Support outdoors, indoor/outdoor transition, linking to public transit aide • Non-assisted baseline comparison, more varied tasks (users’ own routes) • Explore alternative user interfaces • Study efficacy of maps for more spatially aware • Mobile phone implementation • Implementing wizarded functionality • Localization • Decision theoretic control prompting • Photo augmentation Affiliates 2006 – Indoor Wayfinding

  16. Acknowledgments Thanks to Brian Ferris, Susumu Harada, Anna Cavender, anonymous reviewers, DUB group. This work is funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) Grant #H133A031739. Affiliates 2006 – Indoor Wayfinding