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Imperialism . Through Imperialism America would have a new frontier. “The truth is that neither British nor American imperialism was or is idealistic. It has always been driven by economic or strategic interests” – Charley Reese. Imperialism & America.

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imperialism

Imperialism

Through Imperialism America would have a new frontier

“The truth is that neither British nor American imperialism was or is idealistic. It has always been driven by economic or strategic interests” – Charley Reese

imperialism america
Imperialism & America
  • Imperialism – The Policy in which stronger nations extend their economic political, or military control over weaker territories
  • Countries all over the world were imperialistic already.
      • Africa was a prime target of European expansion
      • China & Japan were also targets for European imperialism.
3 factors for expansion
3 Factors for Expansion
  • Americans warmed to the idea of overseas expansion.
      • Desire for Military Strength
      • Thirst for New Markets
      • Belief in Cultural Superiority
military strength
Military Strength
  • Alfred T. Mahan – He urged the US government to build up a strong American naval power in order to compete with other powerful nations. He illustrated his point in his book “Sea Power Upon History”
  • The US built 9 steel-hulled cruisers between 1883 & 1890
  • The US became the world’s third largest naval power and was nicknamed the “Great White Fleet” because its ships were painted white.
thirst for new markets
Thirst for New Markets
  • America had a surplus of goods due to advancements in technology leading to overproduction.
  • The United States saw overseas ports & foreign trade as an answer to overproduction.
  • New Markets were a major economic Argument for expansion.
cultural superiority
Cultural Superiority
  • Some Americans argued that the United States had a responsibility to spread Christianity and “civilization” to the world’s “inferior peoples”
  • “The White Man’s Burden” Rudyard Kipling
the white man s burden rudyard kipling
“The White Man’s Burden” Rudyard Kipling

Take up the White Man’s burden—

Send forth the best ye breed—

Go send your sons to exile

To serve your captives' need

To wait in heavy harness

On fluttered folk and wild—

Your new-caught, sullen peoples,

Half devil and half child

Take up the White Man’s burden

In patience to abide

To veil the threat of terror

And check the show of pride;

By open speech and simple

An hundred times made plain

To seek another’s profit

And work another’s gain

Take up the White Man’s burden—

And reap his old reward:

The blame of those ye better

The hate of those ye guard—

The cry of hosts ye humour

(Ah slowly) to the light:

"Why brought ye us from bondage,

“Our loved Egyptian night?”

Take up the White Man’s burden-

Have done with childish days-

The lightly proffered laurel,

The easy, ungrudged praise.

Comes now, to search your manhood

Through all the thankless years,

Cold-edged with dear-bought wisdom,

The judgment of your peers!

alaska hawaii
Alaska & Hawaii
  • William Seward: Seward arranged for the US to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million.
  • Alaska, originally knows as “Seward's folly” became a state in 1959, and later proved to be a land rich in timber, minerals and also oil.
alaska hawaii1
Alaska & Hawaii
  • By 1900 foreigners and immigrant laborers (merchants, missionaries, and farmers) outnumbered native Hawaiians 3- to -1
  • In 1891 business groups overthrew Queen Liluokalani, because she wanted Hawaii for Hawaiians and removed the property –owning qualification for voting
  • On August 12, 1897 the United States annexed Hawaii mainly because the U.S. needed naval stations in the Pacific
four main causes of the spanish american war
Four Main Causes of the Spanish-American War
  • Cuba’s desire for independence
  • Yellow Journalism
  • De Lôme Letter
  • The Sinking of the Maine
spanish american war
Spanish American War
  • Spain had long been an imperialistic nation.
  • However at the end of the 19th century it only retained: the Philippines, Guam, a few outposts in Africa, & the Caribbean islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico.
  • America was very interested in Cuba and offered to buy it from Spain however Spain said they would rather see Cuba sunk in the ocean.
spanish american war1
Spanish American War
  • Cuba fought with Spain twice for independence.
  • American’s sympathized with the Cuban people
  • During the second revolt Spain sent ValerianoWeyler to Cuba to restore order.
  • He placed over 300,000 Cubans in concentration camps to squash the revolt. Thousands died of hunger and disease.
  • The main goal of the Spanish American war was to free Cuba from Spain’s reign.
yellow journalism
Yellow Journalism
  • Yellow journalism stories of poisoned wells and of children being thrown to the sharks deepened American sympathies for the Cuban rebels against Spain.
  • Yellow Journalism: The sensational style of writing which exaggerates the news to lure and enrage readers.

Joseph Pulitzer

William Randolph Hearst

d e l me letter
De Lôme Letter
  • In Febuary 1898 letter was published in the New York journal. It was written by Enrique Dupuy de Lôme the Spanish minister to the United States.
  • The letter was a criticism of President McKinley. American’s were very angry over the insult to their president.
u s s maine
U.S.S. Maine
  • In early 1898 President McKinley had ordered the U.S.S. Maine to Cuba to bring home American citizens in danger from the fighting.
  • On February 15, 1898 the ship blew up in the harbor of Havana Cuba. More than 260 men were killed.
  • No one knew what had happened however Hearst’s Newspaper published that the Spanish had blown up the ship. American's were no longer angry, they were outraged.
  • Today historians believe that the sinking of the Maine was an accident.
remember the maine
REMEMBER THE MAINE!
  • On April 11 McKinley asked Congress for authority to use force against Spain. After a week of debate, Congress agreed, and on April 20th the United States declared war on Spain.
war in the philippines
War in the Philippines
  • The 1st battle took place in the Spanish colony of the Philippine Islands
  • On April 30th Commodore George Dewey of the United States opened fire in Manila Bay and destroyed the Spanish fleet.
cuban occupation
Cuban Occupation
  • American forces landed in Cuba in June 1898.
  • Hostilities began with a navel blockade of Cuba that sealed up the Spanish fleet in the harbor of Santiago de Cuba
rough riders
Rough Riders
  • The Rough Riders: A volunteer cavalry under the command of Leonard Wood and Theodore Roosevelt.
  • Their victory in battle allowed the army to attack San Juan Hill
          • Roosevelt, though he only played a minor part in the victory was declared the “Hero of San Juan Hill” by the newspapers at home.
  • With the Spanish fleet destroyed American troops invaded Puerto Rico on July 25th
treaty of paris
Treaty Of Paris
  • The US and Spain signed a cease fire agreement on August 12th
  • On December 10, 1898 the US and Spain met in Paris to agree on a treaty.
  • Results:
    • Spain freed Cuba
    • the islands of Guam, & Puerto Rico became unincorporated territories of the United States.
    • The US also bought the Philippines for $20 million.
puerto rico
Puerto Rico
  • The United States gave Puerto Rico no promise regarding independence after the Spanish-American War.
  • Puerto Rico was strategically important to the US both for maintaining a presence in the Caribbean and for protecting a future canal that American leaders wanted to build across the Isthmus of Panama.
cuban occupation1
Cuban Occupation
  • When the US declared war against spain in 1898 it recognized cuba’s independence from Spain.
  • The Teller Amendment stated that the US had no intention of taking over any part of Cuba.
  • Spanish people feared that America would simply replace Spain as dominate over Cuban politics
slide27

PRO-American Occupation

    • American military provided food and clothing for thousands of families
    • Helped farmers put land back into cultivation
    • Organized elementary schools
    • Improved sanitation and medical research
      • The military government helped eliminate yellow fever a disease which had killed hundreds of Cubans each year
  • Anti American Occupation
    • Under American occupation the same officials who had served Spain remained in office
    • Cubans who protested were place in prison or exiled
platt amendment
Platt Amendment
  • An addendum to the Cuban constitution insisted upon by the American government.
  • It stated that:
    • Cuba could not make treaties that might limit its independence or permit a foreign power to control any party of its territory
    • The United States reserved the right to intervene in Cuba
    • Cuba was not to go into debt
    • The United States could buy or lease leand on the island for naval station and refueling stations
  • The United States army would not withdraw until Cuba adopted the Platt Amendment
  • Cuba became a U.S. Protectorate, a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a
  • stronger power
philippine american war
Philippine- American War
  • The Filipinos rose in revolt of American occupation led by Emilio Aguinaldo
  • The US assumed the same role as the Spanish had in their occupation of Cuba.
  • The forced Filipinos to live in designated zones, where poor sanitation, starvation, and disease killed thousands
slide31
Under American rule the Philippines moved gradually toward independence and finally became an independednt republic on July 4, 1946

Philippine- American War

  • White soldiers saw Filipinos as inferiors.
  • Many soldiers in the Philippines were African Americans.
  • Some African-American soldiers deserted to the Filipino side
  • It took the Americans nearly three years to put down the rebellion.
slide33

US imperialists saw the Philippines as a gateway into the rest of Asia particularly China

  • China presented American investors with new opportunities for large-scale railroad construction.
  • Access to China would give the United States access to millions of consumers
open door policy
Open Door Policy
  • A series of policy statement called the Open Door notes were issued to imperialist national leaders
      • Proposed that the nations share their trading rights with the US thus creating an open door.
      • And that no single nation would have a monopoly on trade with any part of China
  • It reflected three deeply held American beliefs
  • The growth of the US economy depended on exports
  • That the US had the right to intervene abroad to keep foreign markets open
  • They feared that the closing of an area to American products, citizens, or ideas threatened U.S. survival.
boxer rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
  • Secrete societies in China pledged to rid the country of “foreign devils.”
  • The most well known were the Boxers [named that by the Westerns because they practiced Martial Arts]
  • Troops from Britain, France, Germany, and Japan joined about 2,500 American soldiers and marched on the Chinese capital.
  • Within 2 months the Boxer Rebellion was suppressed.
america and imperialism
America and Imperialism
  • In 1900 McKinley was elected. He was a known imperialist.
  • McKinley’s reelection confirmed that a majority of Americans favored imperialism.
  • Under McKinley America had gained an empire
  • Anti-Imperialists included some of the most prominent people in America: Grover Cleveland, Andrew Carnegie, Jane Addams, Mark Twain, & many more.
  • They all agreed that imperialism rejected the American ideal of “liberty for all”
  • They were against the high costs of military buildup and infrastructure construction.
  • They thought it was wrong for the U.S. to rule another country without it’s consent.
  • Some also feared the continued immigration of people of differing races in the U.S.
  • In the early 20th century, the US under President Roosevelt and Wilson would continue to exert its power around the globe
teddy roosevelt
Teddy Roosevelt
  • The assassination of McKinley in 1901 led to Teddy Roosevelt becoming the Vice President
  • Along with being quite a character Roosevelt is often remembered as president for expanding the presidential power.
china japan
China & Japan
  • In 1905 Roosevelt mediated a settlement in a war between Russia and Japan
  • Roosevelt feared that the war between the two powerhouses would end up closing off trade to China for the rest of the world, including the U.S.
  • His successful efforts in negotiating the Treaty or Portsmouth won Roosevelt a Nobel Prize
panama canal
Panama Canal
  • America wanted a canal cutting across Central America, to help facilitate movement between Atlantic and Pacific ports.
  • America choose Panama because it was the smallest country an would require less digging.
slide42

Panama was under the control of Colombia and they would not sell Panama to the U.S.

  • A revolt took place where the rebels were backed by nearly a dozen U.S. warships
  • Many or Roosevelt's opponents opposed U.S. involvement in the Panamanian revolt.
  • After the Panamanians revolted against Cuba the US signed a treaty with Panama and agreed to pay Panama an annual rent of $25 million.
slide43

Construction of the Panama Canal ranks as one of the world’s greatest engineering feats.

  • On August 15, 1914 the canal opened for business and more than 1,000 merchant ships passed through during its first year.
roosevelt corollary
Roosevelt Corollary
  • Roosevelt warned that disorder in Latin America might force the united states to exercise a Police Power.
  • He threatened to use the United States Navy to maintain stability in neighboring countries

“Walk softly and carry a big stick.”

dollar diplomacy
Dollar Diplomacy
  • Dollar Diplomacy: A concept that Presidents Wilson and Taft used loans given to foreign countries to protect the United States investments in Latin America.

Woodrow Wilson

William H. Taft

dollar diplomacy1
Dollar Diplomacy
  • Taft arranged for American bankers to loan Nicaragua enough money to pay its debts
  • By doing so, US bankers gained control of Nicaragua’s state-owned railroad system and national bank
  • To prop up Nicaraguan President Diaz’z government, some 2000 marines were sent to Nicaragua
slide48

The United States achieved several foreign policy goals

    • It expanded the foreign markets in order to ensure the continued growth of the domestic economy.
    • The U.S. built a modern navy to protect its interests abroad.
    • The U.S. Exercised its international police power to ensure dominance in Latin America