Earth Science Chapter 18.1 – Water in the Atmosphere - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Earth Science Chapter 18.1 – Water in the Atmosphere
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Earth Science Chapter 18.1 – Water in the Atmosphere

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  1. Earth Science Chapter 18.1 – Water in the Atmosphere

  2. Ag Earth Science – Chapter 18.1 18.1 Vocabulary

  3. precipitation • Any form of water that falls from a cloud

  4. latent heat • The energy absorbed or released during a change in state

  5. evaporation • The process of converting a liquid to a gas

  6. condensation • The change of state from a gas to a liquid

  7. sublimation • The conversion of a solid directly to a gas without passing through the liquid stage

  8. deposition • The process by which water vapor is changed directly to a solid without passing through the liquid state

  9. humidity • A general term referring to water vapor in the air but not to a liquid droplets of fog, cloud, or rain

  10. saturated • The state of air that contains the maximum quality of water vapor that it can hold at any given temperature and pressure.

  11. relative humidity • The ratio of the air’s water-vapor content to its water-vapor capacity

  12. dew point • The temperature to which air has to be cooled in order to reach saturation

  13. hygrometer • An instrument designed to measure relative humidity

  14. Water in the Atmosphere • When it comes to understanding atmospheric processes, water vapor is the most important gas in the atmosphere • Precipitation– any form of water that falls from a cloud (rain, sleet, hail, snow, etc..)

  15. Water Changes in State • Solid to Liquid • The process of changing state requires that the energy is transferred in the form of heat • Latent heat – “hidden” heat. The energy absorbed or released during a change in state

  16. Water Changes in State • Liquid to Gas • Evaporation– the process of changing a liquid to a gas • Condensation– the process where water vapor changes to a liquid

  17. Water Changes in State • Solid to a Gas • Sublimation– conversion of a solid directly to a gas without passing through the liquid state • Deposition– conversion of a vapor directly to a solid

  18. Humidity • Humidity – the amount of water vapor in the air • Saturation • Saturated- The state of air that contains the maximum quality of water vapor that it can hold at any given temperature and pressure. • When saturated, warm air contains more water vapor than saturated cold air

  19. Humidity • Relative Humidity • Relative humidity is a ratio of the air’s actual water-vapor content compared with the amount of air can hold at that temperature and pressure. • To summarize, when the water-vapor content of air remains constant, lowering air temperature causes an increase in relative humidity, and raising air temperature causes a decrease in relative humidity.

  20. Humidity • Dew Point • The temperature to which a parcel of air would need to be cooled to reach saturation

  21. Humidity • Measuring Humidity • Hygrometer- A tool that measures humidity

  22. Ag Earth Science – Chapter 18.2 18.2 Vocabulary

  23. dry adiabatic rate • The rate of adiabatic cooling or warming in unsaturated air

  24. wet adiabatic rate • The rate of adiabatic temperature change in saturated air

  25. orographic lifting • Mountains acting as barriers to the flow of air, forcing the air to ascend

  26. front • The boundary between two adjoining air masses having contrasting characteristics

  27. temperature inversion • A layer of limited depth in the atmosphere of limited depth where the temperature increases rather than decreases with height

  28. condensation nuclei • Tiny bits of particulate matter that serve as surfaces on which water vapors condenses

  29. Air Compression and Expansion • Adiabatic Temperature Changes • When air is allowed to expand, it cools, and when it is compressed, it warms

  30. Air Compression and Expansion • Expansion and Cooling • As you travel from earth’s surface upward through the atmosphere, the atmospheric pressure decreases. • Ascending air = cools and Descending air = warms

  31. Air Compression and Expansion • Expansion and Cooling • Dry adiabatic rate – the rate of cooling or heating of dry air (fast) • Wet adiabatic rate – The rate of cooling or heating of saturated air (slow)

  32. Processes That Lift Air • Four mechanisms that can cause air to rise are orographic lifting, frontal wedging, convergence, and localized convective lifting.

  33. Processes That Lift Air • Orographic Lifting • Elevated terrains, such as mountains, that act as barriers to air flow (forcing air to ascend)

  34. Processes That Lift Air • Frontal Wedging • Cooler, denser air acts as a barrier over which the warmer, less dense air rises • Front– boundary between two different air masses (example – cold/warm air masses)

  35. Processes That Lift Air • Convergence • The collision of contrasting air masses that causes the air to rise

  36. Processes That Lift Air • Localized Convective Lifting • The process that produces rising thermals (localized)

  37. Stability • Stable air tends to remain in its original position, while unstable air tends to rise. • Air stability is determined by measuring the temperature of the atmosphere at various heights.

  38. Stability • Air is stable when the temperature decreases gradually with increasing altitude • Temperature inversion – air temperature actually increases with height

  39. Condensation • Condensation happens when water vapor in the air changes to a liquid (fog, dew, clouds) • For any form of condensation to occur, the air must be saturated • Condensation nuclei - Tiny bits of particulate matter that serve as surfaces on which water vapors condenses

  40. Ag Earth Science – Chapter 18.3 18.3 Vocabulary

  41. cirrus • 1 of 3 basic cloud forms. Very high clouds that are thin, delicate ice-crystal clouds that have veil-like patches or thin, wispy fibers

  42. cumulus • 1 of 3 basic cloud forms. They are billowy individual clouds with flat bases.

  43. stratus • 1 of 3 basic cloud forms. They are sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky.

  44. Bergeron process • A theory that relates the formation of precipitation to supercooled clouds, freezing nuclei, and the different saturation levels of ice and liquid water.