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Chapter 5. Groups and Organizations. Questions for You…. Make a list of the various groups to which you belong. Which groups have had the greatest impact on your development? How have your group associations changed based on the different stages in your life?. Chapter Outline. Social Groups

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chapter 5

Chapter 5

Groups and Organizations

questions for you
Questions for You…
  • Make a list of the various groups to which you belong.
  • Which groups have had the greatest impact on your development?
  • How have your group associations changed based on the different stages in your life?
chapter outline
Chapter Outline
  • Social Groups
  • Group Characteristics and Dynamics
  • Formal Organizations in Global Perspective
  • Alternative Forms of Organization
  • Organizations in the Future
social groups
Social Groups

A collection of two or more people who:

  • Interact frequently.
  • Share a sense of belonging.
  • Have a feeling of interdependence.
how much do you know about privacy in groups
How Much Do You Know About Privacy in Groups?
  • True or False?
    • Parents of students at U.S. colleges and universities are entitled to a transcript of their children’s college grades, regardless of the student’s age.
how much do you know about privacy in groups1
How Much Do You Know About Privacy in Groups?
  • False
    • The Family Educational Right to Privacy Act, which allows parents of a student under 18 to obtain their child’s grades, requires the student’s consent once they are 18; however, that law applies only to institutions that receive federal educational funds.
how much do you know about privacy in groups2
How Much Do You Know About Privacy in Groups?
  • True or False?
    • Students at a church youth group meeting who hear a member of the group confess to an illegal act can be required to divulge what that member said.
how much do you know about privacy in groups3
How Much Do You Know About Privacy in Groups?
  • True.
    • Although confidential communications made privately to religious leader cannot be divulged without the consent of the person making the communication, this does not apply when other people are present who are likely to hear the statement.
aggregates and categories
Aggregates and Categories
  • Aggregates happen to be in the same place at the same time:
    • Airline passengers, shoppers, waiting at a traffic light
  • Categories share a similar characteristic:
    • Students, elderly, Native Americans
polling question
Polling Question
  • Which type of group is the most important to you?
      • Primary group
      • Secondary group
reference groups
Reference Groups
  • Influences a person’s behavior and attitudes, regardless of whether they are a member.
  • We may act more like members of a group we want to join than members of groups to which we already belong.
    • In this case, reference groups are a source of anticipatory socialization.
polling question1
Polling Question
  • How likely would you be to join an organization where membership is determined by race?
      • Very likely
      • Somewhat likely
      • Unsure
      • Somewhat unlikely
      • Very unlikely
group leadership functions
Group Leadership Functions
  • Instrumental leadership is most appropriate when the group’s purpose is to complete a task or reach a particular goal.
  • Expressive leadership is most appropriate when the group is dealing with emotional issues, and harmony, solidarity, and high morale are needed.
group leadership styles
Group Leadership Styles
  • Authoritarian leaders - often criticized for fostering intergroup hostility.
  • Democratic leaders - praised for supportive behavior and blamed for being indecisive in a crisis.
  • Laissez-faire leaders - do not provide active leadership.
asch s research
Asch’s Research
  • Asch’s research assistants tried to influence participants to pick Line 1 or 3 as the match for the line in the lower card.
  • Many went along rather than risk the opposition of the “group.”
group think
Group Think

Irving Janis developed an influential theory of group decision making that he called groupthink.

Groupthink involves an extreme form of group cohesiveness in which group members begin to think alike and do not question each other or consider alternative choices in making a decision.

alternative forms of organization
Alternative Forms of Organization

“Humanizing” the bureaucracy:

  • Greater sharing of power and responsibility.
  • Encouragement of participants to share their ideas and try new approaches.
  • Efforts to reduce the number of people in dead‑end jobs and to help people meet family responsibilities.
informal side of bureaucracy
Informal Side of Bureaucracy
  • Those aspects of participants’ day-to-day activities and interactions that ignore, bypass, or do not correspond with the official rules and procedures of the bureaucracy.
slide28
1. A collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common are a(n):
  • category
  • outgroup
  • ingroup
  • aggregate
answer d
Answer: D
  • A collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common are an aggregate.
slide30
2. Ingroup and outgroup distinctions may:
  • encourage only prejudice.
  • encourage both social cohesion and prejudice.
  • none of the choices.
  • encourage only social cohesion.
answer b
Answer: B
  • Ingroup and outgroup distinctions may encourage both social cohesion and prejudice.
slide32
3. Reference groups are also a major source of:
  • role ambiguity
  • role conflict
  • role strain
  • anticipatory socialization
answer d1
Answer: D
  • Reference groups are also a major source of anticipatory socialization.
slide34
4. Social groups, according to Conflict theorists:
  • work toward helping individuals at the expense of groups.
  • involve a series of power relationships which may not equally serve individual members.
  • involve looking at various status characteristics which assist in understanding the power dynamic.
  • involve gaining better access to overthrow the Bourgeois mentality.
answer b1
Answer: B
  • Social groups, according to Conflict theorists, involve a series of power relationships which may not equally serve individual members.
slide36
5. In Solomon Asch's study regarding lines on cards, he found that:
  • the pressure toward group conformity was established when members were assured they were not going to hurt anyone.
  • the pressure toward group conformity was not established.
  • the pressure toward group conformity was established through members contradicting their best judgments.
  • the pressure toward group conformity was established when numbers were low.
answer c
Answer: C
  • In Solomon Asch's study regarding lines on cards, he found that the pressure toward group conformity was established through members contradicting their best judgments.
slide38
6. The self-protective behavior of officials at the top in bureaucracies may render the organization inefficient.
  • False.
  • True.
answer b2
Answer: B
  • It’s true that the self-protective behavior of officials at the top in bureaucracies may render the organization inefficient.
slide40
7. Laissez-faire leaders like to be involved in the decision making process of government that affects individuals’ lives.
  • True.
  • False.
answer b3
Answer: B
  • Laissez-faire leaders do not like to be involved in the decision making process of government that affects individuals’ lives.